CALIGULA Moore, 1862

Caligula Moore, 1862, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)1: 321.

Type species: Caligula simla (Westwood, 1847).

A cold-tolerant genus of about 10 species endemic to the eastern Palaearctic, with one species penetrating along the himalayan foothills as far west as Afghanistan. Closely related to Perisomena Walker (1855), Neoris Moore (1862) and Saturnia Schrank (1802). Included in the latter by some authors.

HOSTPLANT FAMILIES: Many trees and shrubs, but with a preference for the Rosaceae and Juglandaceae.


CALIGULA LINDIA Moore, 1865

Caligula lindia Moore, 1865, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)2: 424.

Type locality: N.E. India.

(Taxonomic note. Some recent taxonomic works place this species in the genus Rinaca, along with most other species of Caligula. Other works include it in Saturnia.)


BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Nepali refuge.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan 90--96mm.


Male Caligula lindia (pale form), Leh (5000m), Ladakh, Kashmir, India. Photo: © Tony Pittaway, NHMUK Male Caligula lindia (dark form), Shimla (2500m), Himachal Pradesh, India. Photo: © Tony Pittaway, NHMUK

ADULT BIOLOGY

Found up to 2400m altitude.


FLIGHT-TIME

In Afghanistan, late June to early July as one generation. In Kashmir, India, until late July at altitude (5000m).


EARLY STAGES


Full-grown larva of Caligula lindia, Kashmir, India. Photo: Ric Peigler

Similar to those of Neoris huttoni Moore, 1862, but with 'eye-like' tubercles on the penultimate segment.

Hostplants. No information available.

PUPA: No information available.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


DISTRIBUTION

Southeastern Afghanistan north to the Salang Pass, and Kashmir.

Extra-limital range. The himalayan foothills of northern India, from Kashmir to Bhutan. It also occurs in southern Tibet\Xizang Province, China, and Nepal.


OTHER SUBSPECIES

None.



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