DAHIRA YUNNANFUANA YUNNANFUANA (Clark, 1925)

Male Dahira yunnanfuana montivaga. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Acosmeryx yunnanfuana Clark, 1925, Proc. New Engl. zool. Club 9: 34. Type locality: Southeastern China, [Yunnan,] Yunnanfu [Kunming].

Synonym. Acosmeryx yunnanfuana Clark, 1925.

Note. Up until recently the taxon known as Dahira yunnanfuana (Clark, 1925) was considered to be a single taxonomic entity occuring along the southeastern slopes of the Himalaya, from Nepal (Haruta, 1992) across southern Xizang/Tibet (China), Bhutan (Dierl, 1975; Irungbam & Irungbam, 2019), northern Burma/Myanmar, to central China. However, the work of Haxaire, Melichar & Manjunatha (2021) split this taxon into three separate subspecies, namely Dahira yunnanfuana yunnanfuana (Clark, 1925) (occurring in China, from Yunnan to Shaanxi), Dahira yunnanfuana montivaga (Kernbach, 1966) (occurring in Nepal, Bhutan and southern Xizang/Tibet, China), and a new subspecies Dahira yunnanfuana indicus Melichar, 2021 (from Arunachal Pradesh, India). This was based not on wing pattern but on two small characters in the male genitalia that seemed both constant and rather easy to observe. The first was the end of the apical process of the aedeagus. This structure was blunt and multidentate in all dissected central/southern Chinese specimens, whatever their origin, while it was almost always sharp and tapered in specimens from Nepal, Xizang/Tibet and India. The second character was the shape of the harpe, which separated out into three patterns: tapered and nearly rectilinear in subspecies yunnanfuana; wider and flatter in Nepalese insects (subspecies montivaga) and broad basally, but abruptly narrowed into a strongly curved hook in Indian insects (the new subspecies indicus). The exact boundary between the Himalayan and Chinese populations is unknown at present but is likely to be somewhere in Burma/Myanmar.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Variable.


ADULT BIOLOGY

Flies at between 1300m and 3200m altitude.


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 5.iv (Lushui); 12-24.iv (Shimian County); 26.iv (Gongga Shan; Lijiang); 1-2.v (Tengchong); v (Foping Nature Reserve); 17.v.2018 (Lijiang); vi (Siguniang Shan, Wolong Nature Reserve).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Unknown.

LARVA: Unknown.

PUPA: Unknown.

Larval hostplants. Unknown.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Shaanxi (Foping Nature Reserve, Qinling, 1800m); Sichuan (Gongga Shan/Minya Konka, 2500-3200m; Siguniang Shan, Wolong Nature Reserve; Shimian County, 1300m); Chongqing (north); Yunnan (Lufeng County; Kunming; Tengchong, 2200m; Lushui, 2520m; Jade Dragon Snow Mountain Resort, Lijiang, 2800m; Renhe Village, Lijiang, 2300m).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Southern and central China, from Yunnan northeastwards to southern Shaanxi.


Global distribution of Dahira yunnanfuana yunnanfuana. Map: © Tony Pittaway.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Yunnan refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)