<HTML> <HEAD> <title>Sphingidae of the Western Palaearctic - References</title> <META NAME="DESCRIPTION" CONTENT="An annotated checklist of the hawkmoths of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia."> <META NAME="KEYWORDS" CONTENT="sphingidae, europe, hawkmoths, tony pittaway, pittaway, acherontia, acosmeryx, afghanistan, agrius, akbesia, albania, algeria, altai, amorpha, andorra, armenia, austria, azerbaijan, azores, balkans, baluchistan, bee hawks, belarus, berutana, bombycoidea, bombycoidea, bosnia, brazhniki, bulgaria, callambulyx, canary islands, central asia, china, clarina, clearwings, corsica, crete, crimea, croatia, cyprus, czech republic, czechoslovakia, daphnis, deaths-head, deilephila, denmark, distribution, dolbina, dolbinopsis, dubai, egypt, england, esfingidos, estonia, europe, finland, france, georgia, germany, greece, haemorrhagia, hawk moths, hawk-moths, hawkmoth, hawkmoths, hemaris, herse, hippotion, holarctic, hornworms, hungary, hyles, hyloicus, iceland, iran, iran, iraq, ireland, israel, italy, jordan, kashmir, kazakhstan, kentrochrysalis, kirgizia, kuwait, kyrgyzstan, laothoe, laothoe sinica, latvia, lebanon, lepidoptera, libya, lichtenstein, lithuania, macedonia, macroglossum, madiera, malta, marumba, middle east, mimas, moldova, morocco, natural enemies, north africa, norway, oman, pakistan, palaearctic, palearctic, pamir, parasitoids, pijlstaarten, poland, portugal, proserpinus, qatar, rethera, romania, russia, sardinia, saudi arabia, schwaermer, schw&auml;rmer, scotland, serbia, siberia, sicily, sinai, slovak republic, slovakia, slovania, smerinthus, smerinthus minor, spain, sphingidae, sphingides, sphingoidea, sphingonaepiopsis, sphinx, sphinx moths, svaermare, svaermarnas, sweden, switzerland, syria, szenderek, tadjikistan, tajikistan, theretra, tunisia, turkestan, turkey, turkmenistan, ukraine, united arab emirates, uzbekistan, wales, xinjiang, yemen, yugoslavia"> <META NAME="OWNER" CONTENT="AR Pittaway"> <META NAME="AUTHOR" CONTENT="AR Pittaway"> </HEAD> <body BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF" BACKGROUND="back.gif"> <hr> <h1><font color="green">REFERENCES</font></h1> <br> <p>Some of the references here will not be found in the body of the text as information taken from them was used only in the preparation of the original distribution maps (<i>to come at some future date</i>). Information on the <a href="hist.htm">historical treatment</a> of the Sphingidae in european literature is also provided.</p> <p>ABAFI-AIGNER, L., P&Aacute;VEL, J. &amp; UHRYK, F. (1896). <i>A Magyar birodalom &aacute;llatvil&aacute;ga</i> (<i>Fauna Regni Hungariae</i>), III. Arthropoda (Insecta. Lepidoptera), 82 pp., 1 map. Budapest, Hungary: Regia Societas Scientiarum Naturalium Hungarica. [in Hungarian]</p> <p>ABAFI-AIGNER, L. (1907). Magyarorsz&aacute;g lepk&eacute;i [Lepidoptera of Hungary], 137 pp. Budapest, Hungary: Kir&aacute;lyi Magyar Term&eacute;szettudom&aacute;nyi T&aacute;rsulat. [in Hungarian]</p> <p>ABDURAHMANOV, A.G. (1999). Species and some biological features of hawk moths (Macrojugata. Metaheterocera. Sphingidae. Lepidoptera.) of Daghestan republic, pp. 132--142. In: <i>Ecology of Daghestan <b>1</b></i>. [in Russian]</p> <p>AISTLEITNER, U. &amp; AISTLEITNER, E. (1998). Faunistic records of Bombyces and Sphinges (sensu classico) from Spain (Insecta: Lepidoptera). <i>Revta. Lepid.</i>, <b>26</b>(103): 147--163.</p> <p>AKIN, K. (2012). Contributions to the lepidoptera fauna of Mutki (Bitlis) I. Sphingidae. <i>BEU Journal of Science</i>, <b>1</b>(1): 45-49. [in Turkish]</p> <p>AKKUZU, E., AYBERK, H. &AMP; INAC, S. (2007). Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution. <i>Journal of Environmental Biology</i>, <b>28</b>(4): 723--730.</p> <p>ALBERTUS MAGNUS (13th C). <i>De natura animalium</i>. [in Latin]</p> <p>ALBIN, E. (1720). <i>A natural history of English insects</i>, [12] pp., 100 pls. London. [<a href="albin1720.jpg">PLATE</a>]</p> <p>ALDROVANDUS, V. (1638). <i>De Animalibus Insectis Libri Septem</i> (Edn 2), x, 767 pp. + xliv. Bologna. [in Latin]</p> <p>ALKEMEIER, F. &amp; GATTER, W. (1990). Gr&ouml;ssenordnung der herbstlichen S&uuml;dwanderung des Windenschw&auml;rmers (<i>Agrius convolvuli</i>) in den Alpen. <i>Ent. Z., Frank. a. M.</i>, <b>100</b>: 330--332. [in German]</p> <p>ALPH&Eacute;RAKY, S. (1882). L&eacute;pidopt&egrave;res du district de Kouldj&agrave; et des montagnes environnantes, II. Heterocera. <i>Horae Soc. ent. ross.</i>, <b>17</b>: 15--103. [in French]</p> <p>ANDUS, L. (1986). Hawk moths (Lep. Sphingidae) collection in Natural History Museum in Beograd. <i>Bull. nat. Hist. Mus. Belgrade</i> (B) Biol., <b>(41)</b>: 89--107.</p> <p>ANIKIN, V. V. (2004). To the distribution of <i>Hyles hippophaes</i> (Esper, 1793) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in Lower Volga Region. <i>Entomologicheskie I parazitologicheskie issledovaniya v Povolzh'e</i>, <b>3</b>: 40--41. [in Russian]</p> <p>ASKEW, R. R. (1971). <i>Parasitic insects</i>, xvii + 316 pp. 124 figs. London.</p> <p>ATANASOV, A.Z., ONATIS, V.P., KASPARYAN, D.R., KUSDITSKI, V.S., RASNITSIN, A.P., SITAN, U.V. &amp; TODKONITS, V.D. (1981). Pereponchatokrle. <i>In:</i> MEDVEDEV, G.S., <i>Opred. Nasek. europ. Chasti SSSR</i>, <b>3</b> [Hymenoptera 3, Ichneumonidae (part)]: 687 pp. Leningrad. [in Russian]</p> <p>AURIVILLIUS, C. (1910). Schmetterlinge gesammelt in Westafrika von Leonardo Fea in den Jahren 1897-1902. <i>Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Ser. 3)</i>, <b>4</b>: 494--530. [in German]</p> <p>AUSTAUT, J. L. (1905). Notice sur quelques l&eacute;pidopt&egrave;res nouveaux. <i>Ent. Z., Frankf. a. M.</i>, <b>18</b>: 143. [in French]</p> <p>B&Aacute;EZ, M. &amp; GARC&Iacute;A, A. (2005). Lepidoptera. <i>In:</i> ARECHAVALETA-HERN&Aacute;NDEZ, M., ZURITA-P&Eacute;REZ, N., MARRERO-G&Oacute;MEZ, M. del C. &amp; MART&Iacute;N-ESQUIVEL, J. L. (Eds.), <i>Lista preliminar de especies silvestres de Cabo Verde: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres, 2005</i>, pp. 87--90. La Laguna, Tenerife: Consejer&iacute;a de Medio Ambiente y Ordenaci&oacute;n Territorial, Gobierno de Canar&iacute;as. [in Spanish]</p> <p>BADR, M. A., OSHAIBAH, A. A., NAWABI, A. El- &amp; GAMAL, M. M. Al- (1985). Classification of some species of the family Sphingidae--Lepidoptera in Egypt. <i>Ann. agric. Sci., Moshtohor</i>, <b>23</b>: 885.</p> <p>BAKER, G. T. (1891). Notes on the Lepidoptera collected by the late T. Vernon Wollaston. <i>Trans. ent. Soc. Lond.</i>, <b>24</b>: 197--221, 1 pl.</p> <p>BALDWIN, I. T. (1988). Short-term damage-induced increases in tobacco alkaloids protect plants. <i>&Ouml;cologia</i>, <b>75</b>: 367--370.</p> <p>BALLESTEROS-MEJIA, L., KITCHING, I. J. &amp; BECK, J. (2011). Projecting the potential invasion of the Pink Spotted Hawkmoth <i>(Agrius cingulata)</i> across Africa. <i>International Journal of Pest Management</i>, <b>57</b>(2): 153--159.</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, A. (1912). Neue oder wenig bekannte palaearktische Makrolepidopteren VI. <i>Dt. ent. Z. Iris</i>, <b>26</b>: 229--230. [in German]</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, O. (1927). <i>Horae Macrolepidopterologicae Regionis palaearcticae</i>, <b>1</b>: xxviii, 128 pp., 11 pls. Dresden. [in Latin]</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, O. (1936). Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Pal&auml;arktischen Makrolepidopterenfauna, XXIII. <i>Ent. Z., Frankf. a. M.</i>, <b>50</b>: 254--256. [in German]</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, O. (1937). Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Pal&auml;arktischen Makrolepidopterenfauna, XXVII. <i>Ent. Z., Frankf. a. M.</i>, <b>50</b>: 562--564. [in German]</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, O. (1938). Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Pal&auml;arktischen Makrolepidopterenfauna, XXXVI. <i>Ent. Z., Frankf. a. M.</i>, <b>52</b>: 177--180. [in German]</p> <p>BANG-HAAS, O. (1939). Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Pal&auml;arktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna XXXVIII. <i>Dt. ent. Z. Iris</i>, <b>53</b>: 49--60. [in German]</p> <p>B&Auml;NZIGER, H. (1988). 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(1893--95). <i>The Lepidoptera of the British Islands</i> (illus. edn) <b>2</b>: [Sphingidae: pp. 1--75, pls 41--54 (1893)] 372 pp., 86 pls. London.</p> <p>BARTH, M. B., BUCHWALDER, K., KAWAHARA, A. Y., ZHOU, X., LIU, S. L., KREZDORN, N., ROTTER, B., HORRES, R. &amp; HUNDSDOERFER, A. K (2018). Functional characterization of the <i>Hyles euphorbiae</i> hawkmoth transcriptome reveals strong expression of phorbol ester detoxification and seasonal cold hardiness genes. <i>Frontiers in Zoology</i>, <b>15</b>(20): 18 pp. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0252-2.</p> <p>BATRA, S. W. T. (1983). Establishment of <i>Hyles euphorbiae</i> (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in the United States for control of the weedy spurges <i>Euphorbia esula</i> L. and <i>E. cyparissias</i> L. <i>New York Ent. Soc.</i>, <b>91</b>: 304--311.</p> <p>BAUER, E. &amp; TRAUB, B. (1980). Zur Macrolepidopterenfauna der Kapverdischen Inseln. Teil 1. Sphingidae und Arctiidae. <i>Ent. Z., Frankf. a. 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Saturniid and sphingid caterpillars: two ways to eat leaves. <i>Ecology, Brooklyn</i>, <b>69</b>: 1153--1160.</p> <p>BERTUCH, F. J. &amp; BERTUCH, C. (1802). <i>Bilderbuch f&uuml;r Kinder: enthaltend eine angenehme Sammlung von Thieren, Pflanzen, Fr&uuml;chten, Mineralien ... alle nach den besten Originalen gew&auml;hlt, gestochen und mit einer ... den Verstandes-Kr&auml;ften eines Kindes angemessenen Erkl&auml;rung begleitet</i>, <b>4</b>: ii, 506 pp. Weimar. [in German] [<a href="bertuch1802.jpg">PLATE</a>]</p> <p>BESCHKOW, S. V. (1990). <i>Sphingonaepiopsis gorgoniades</i> (H&uuml;bner, [1819]) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) -- a new genus and a new species for the Bulgarian fauna. <i>Acta zool. blg.</i>, <b>40</b>: 75--77.</p> <p>BESHKOV, S. (1990). <i>Hyles hippophaes</i> new for Bulgaria and <i>Euxoa cos crimaea</i> new for the Balkan Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Noctuidae). <i>Phegea</i>, <b>26</b>(1): 9--11.</p> <p>BIENERT, T. (1870). <i>Lepidopterologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Persien in den Jahren 1858 und 1859</i>. 56 pp. Leipzig. [in German]</p> <p>BIRCH, M. C., POPPY, G. M. &amp; BAKER, T. C. (1990). Scents and eversible scent structures of male moths. <i>A. Rev. Ent.</i>, <b>35</b>: 25--58.</p> <p>BIRCHALL, E. (1870). <i>Macroglossa bombiliformis</i> in Connemara. <i>Entomologist.</i>, <b>5</b>: 81.</p> <p>BISCHOF, A. (2006). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Schmetterlingsfauna des Domleschgs und Heinzenbergs, Kanton Graub&uuml;nden, Schweiz (Lepidoptera). <i>Mitteilungen der Entomologischen Gesellschaft Basel, N.F.</i>, <b>56</b>1/2: 2--77. [in German]</p> <p>BLEST, A. D. (1957). The evolution of protective displays in the Saturnioidea and Sphingidae (Lepidoptera). <i>Behaviour</i>, <b>11</b>: 257--309, 4pls.</p> <p>BLETON, C. (1938). Observations sur quelques lepid&oacute;pteres parasites des peupliers dans la region de Fes (Maroc). <i>Rev. Path. v&eacute;g.</i>, <b>25</b>(3): 218--225. [in German]</p> <p>BODENHEIMER, F. S. (1926). An Outbreak of <i>Chaerocampa celerio</i> L. in Palestine. <i>Zionist Organis. Agric. Expt. Sta. &amp; Colon. Dept. Leaflet</i>, (15): 8 pp.</p> <p>BOLSHAKOV, V. S. &amp; OKULOV, V. S. (2014). On the fauna of higher Lepidoptera of the Udmurtia. Addition 2. <i>Eversmannia</i>, <b>37</b>: 27--31.</p> <p>BOLSHAKOV, L. V. &amp; ISMAGILOV, N. N. (2017). Moths of Republic of Tatarstan. 2. Metaheterocera excluding Geometridae, Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). <i>Eversmannia</i>, <b>51/52</b>: 50--87. [in Russian]</p> <p>B&Ouml;RNER, C. (1925). Lepidoptera, Schmetterlinge. <i>In:</i> BROHMER, P. (Ed.), <i>Fauna aus Deutschland</i>: pp. 358--387. [in German]</p> <p>BOU&Ccaron;EK, Z. (1970). Contribution to the knowledge of Italian Chalcidoidea, based mainly on a study at the Institute of Entomology in Turin, with description of some new European species (Hymenoptera): Studi del Gruppo di lavoro del C.N.R. per la lotta integrata contro i nemici animali delle piante: XLI. <i>Memorie Societ&agrave; entomologica Italiana</i>, <b>49</b>: 35--102.</p> <p>[BOULENGER, G. A. <i>et al.</i>] [1923]. <i>A survey of the fauna of Iraq, mammals, birds, reptiles, etc... made by members of the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force 'D', 1915--1919</i>. xxi, 404 pp., 20 pls. Bombay. [see also WATKINS &amp; BUXTON, 1923.]</p> <p>BRANDT, W. (1938). Beitrag zur Lepidopteren-Fauna von Iran. <i>Ent. Rdsch.</i>, <b>55</b>: 698--699. [in German]</p> <p>BRECHLIN, R. (2015). Drei neue Arten der Gattung <i>Sphinx</i> Linnaeus, 1758 aus Vietnam, China und Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). <i>Entomo-Satsphingia</i>, <b>8</b>(1): 16--19. [in German]</p> <p>BREDEMANN, G. (1919). Beobachtungen &uuml;ber Weinsch&auml;dlinge in Ober-mesopotamien. <i>Zeitschr. f. Pflanzenkrankheiten.</i>, <b>29</b>(5-6): 166--171. [in German]</p> <p>BRETHERTON, R. F. &amp; WORMS, C. G. de (1963). Butterflies of Corsica, 1962. <i>Entomologists' Rec. J. Var.</i>, <b>75</b>: 93--104.</p> <p>BROCK, J. P. (1990). Pupal protrusion in some bombycoid moths (Lepidoptera). <i>Entomologist's Gaz.</i>, <b>41</b>: 91--97.</p> <p>BRUMMITT, R.K. (1992). <i>Vascular plant families and genera</i>. London.</p> <p>BUCKLER, W. (1887). <i>The larvae of the British butterflies and moths</i>, <b>2</b>: xi, 172 pp., pls 18--35. London.</p> <p>BURESCH, I. &amp; TULESCHKOW, K. (1931). <i>Rethera komarovi</i> Chr. (Lepidoptera) eine f&uuml;r die Fauna Europas neue Sphingide. <i>Izvestiya na Tsarskit Prirodonauchni Instituti v Sofiya</i>, <b>4</b>: 121--138. [in German]</p> <p>BUTLER, A. G. (1876). Revision of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera of the family Sphingidae. <i>Trans. zool. Soc. Lond.</i>, <b>9</b>: 511--644, 5 pls. [<a href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/126370#page/1/mode/1up">BOOK</a>]</p> <p>CARCASSON, R. H. (1968). Revised catalogue of the African Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) with descriptions of the East African species. <i>Jl. E. Afr. nat. Hist. Soc. natn. Mus.</i>, <b>26</b>: 1--148, 17 pls. [Facsimile reprint, 1976. Faringdon.]</p> <p>CARPENTER, G. H. (1914). Injurious Insects and other Animals observed in Ireland during the year 1913. <i>Econ. Proc. R. Dublin Soc.</i>, <b>2</b>(9): 142--160.</p> <p>CASEY, T. M. (1976). Flight energetics in sphinx moths: heat production and heat loss in <i>Hyles lineata</i> during free flight. <i>J. Exp. Biol.</i>, <b>64</b>: 545--560.</p> <p>CATANIA, A. (2008). <i>Hyles tithymali deserticola</i> (Staudinger, 1901) - first record for the Maltese Islands (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). <i>SHILAP Revta. lepid.</i>, <b>36</b>(141): 69--71.</p> <p>CATANIA, A. (2008). 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