RETHERA KOMAROVI DRILON (Rebel & Zerny, 1931)

GB: Madder Hawkmoth, RU: Komarova Brazhnik, FI: Venäjänkiitäjä.

Deilephila komarovi drilon Rebel & Zerny, 1931, in Buresch & Tuleschkow, Izvestiya na Tsarskitę Prirodonauchni Instituti v Sofiya 4: 127.

Type locality: «Kula Ljums, [Brutti, right bank of the Drin [Drim], immediately below the confluence of the Black and White Drin [Drim] rivers, sitting on boulders]», Alban. [Albania].

(Taxonomic note. Rethera komarovi drilon was needlessly described again by Rebel & Zerny in 1932 in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 103: 85, a publication which is sometimes quoted as 'Rebel & Zerny, 1934'.)


BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; western Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Syrian refuge. The isolated population in Europe appears to have been the result of a post-glacial expansion in range from Turkey, followed by a small contraction.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Male Rethera komarovi drilon, Amasya, Turkey.

Wingspan: 55--65mm. Similar to subsp. rjabovi O. Bang-Haas, 1935, but smaller with better-defined, darker markings on the forewings, particularly in European examples. The species is confusable only with Rethera brandti O. Bang-Haas, 1937 and the other two Rethera species from Afghanistan, but is considerably larger than any of them.

Exhibits little variation except for the intensity of 'tint' colours, which range, ventrally, from pale orange to deep pink. Newly-emerged examples often have a magnificent rose sheen. However, due to the fact that the dorsal green coloration fades in strong sunlight, those collected from drier regions tend to be paler than examples from more verdant areas. The same applies when killing agents such as diethyl ether and ethyl acetate are used.

The presence, width and intensity of black lines and specks on the forewings also varies, with specimens from colder areas being darker and more heavily marked.


Female Rethera komarovi drilon, Bulgaria. Photo: © Emil Enchev.

ADULT BIOLOGY

Occurs in mountains and hilly areas where it frequents 'vegetation islands' on sparsely vegetated cliffs and rocky slopes which are cold in winter and become parched in summer. Little is known of the behaviour of this species, except that it is attracted to light. In Turkey, especially partial to dry, herb-rich hillsides and vegetation-fringed, dry riverbeds, generally at 600--1600m.

Many individuals are attracted to most forms of light and, by day, seem to have a preference for resting on boulders (Rebel & Zerny, 1932).


Typical habitat of Rethera komarovi drilon, Kresna Gorge area, Bulgaria. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

FLIGHT-TIME

Univoltine; mid-April to the second week of June, depending on location and season. In Turkey, from early April/May until late June, depending on altitude, but only during July above 1500m (Danner, Eitschberger & Surholt, 1998).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Illustrated by Danner, Eitschberger & Surholt (1998) and identical to that of subsp. rjabovi.

LARVA: Full-fed, 70--90mm. A full-grown larva is illustrated by Pelzer (1991), while Danner, Eitschberger & Surholt (1998) picture every instar. These, as well as the full-grown larva, are identical to that of subsp. rjabovi.

Occurs during May, June and/or July.

Major Hostplants. Rubia and Galium spp. (Pittaway, 1979a), especially the flowers and immature seeds.


Hostplant (Galium) of Rethera komarovi drilon in typical location, Kresna Gorge area, Bulgaria. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

Minor Hostplants. Reputedly Euphorbia (Melnikow, 1922; Buresch & Tuleschkow, 1931), but this is highly unlikely. In captivity it readily feeds on the ornamental Plocama pendula, especially the flowers and immature seeds.

PUPA: As for subsp. rjabovi, but smaller. The overwintering stage.


PARASITOIDS

None recorded.


DISTRIBUTION

The mountains of eastern Albania (Rebel & Zerny, 1932; Eichler & Friese, 1965), the Republic of Macedonia, northern Greece and southern Bulgaria (Ganev, 1984; S. V. Beschkow, pers. comm.) as an isolated population. Then western, central (Daniel, 1932; de Freina & Witt, 1987) and central-southern Turkey (Hariri, 1971; Feza Doganlar, pers. comm.; de Freina, 2012).

Locations for Bulgaria are: Kresna; Slavyanka Mountains; Eastern Rhodopi Mountains.

A very sparsely distributed species, though large colonies sometimes occur in certain localities. It may have a wider distribution than indicated due to the remote, inaccessible nature of its habitat.

Extra-limital range. None.


Global distribution of Rethera komarovi. Map: © Tony Pittaway.

OTHER SUBSPECIES

Eastern Turkey, the mountains straddling Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraqi Kurdistan (Wiltshire, 1957), and from northern Iran south along the Zagros Mountains (Barou, 1967; Ghassemi, Alemansoor & Alehossein, 2009) to the rest of central, southern and eastern Iran (and maybe also western Afghanistan (Ebert, 1969)) as subsp. rjabovi O. Bang-Haas, 1935. Central and eastern Afghanistan (Ebert, 1969), Balochistan and the Hindukush area of western/northern Pakistan (leg. Z. Varga & G. Ronkay, ex coll. György Fábián, coll. Sphingidae museum of Czech Rep.), southern Uzbekistan (Western Gissar Mountains), Tajikistan (Derzhavets, 1984), Kyrgyzstan and southern and eastern Kazakhstan (Eitschberger & Lukhtanov, 1996) as subsp. stipularis (Swinhoe, 1885). The Kopet Dag mountains of northeastern Iran and southwestern Turkmenistan as subsp. komarovi (Christoph, 1885).


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