SPHINX CALIGINEUS SINICUS (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Female Sphinx caligineus sinicus. Photo: © BMNH Male Sphinx caligineus sinicus. Photo: © BMNH

TAXONOMY

Hyloicus caligineus sinicus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 149. Type locality: China, [Zhejiang,] Zocé [Sheshan, 31°10'N 121°19'E].

Synonym. Hyloicus caligineus sinicus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.

Note. Mell (1922a) described brown specimens of Sphinx caligineus from northern Yunnan as Sphinx caligineus brunnescens, a subspecies that was confined to montane forests. Later, however, he referred specimens from northern Guangdong and southern Hunan to this subspecies (Mell, 1922b) and stated that Sphinx caligineus brunnescens was intermediate ('ein Mittelglied') between the dark brown Sphinx caligineus caligineus (Butler) from Japan and the paler grey Sphinx caligineus sinicus (Rothschild & Jordan) from 'Zocé' (= Sheshan), Zhejiang. On 30.vi.1995, the first author captured a specimen of Sphinx caligineus at Hangzhou (Zhejiang) that was transitional in colour between Sphinx caligineus sinicus and Sphinx caligineus brunnescens. In addition, there is a brown female in the IZAS from nearby Sheshan (Zhejiang) (the type locality of Sphinx caligineus sinicus) that matches the description of Sphinx caligineus brunnescens, while grey specimens of Sphinx caligineus have been captured at 2250m in northern Yunnan. We therefore consider it likely that Sphinx caligineus brunnescens is simply a colour form of Sphinx caligineus sinicus, analogous to the brown forms that exist in the European species, Sphinx pinastri Linnaeus. However, this matter cannot be fully resolved until the types of Sphinx caligineus brunnescens have been examined.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 55--76mm. Differs from Sphinx caligineus caligineus in having: body and wings paler, more grey-brown (Sphinx caligineus brunnescens is intermediate); hindwing with veins Rs and M1 shorter stalked; antenna with scaling white, with a few brown scales on the middle segments; mesothoracic tegulae with brown borders faint, vestigial in the female; forewing upperside with discal streaks faint or absent.

Male genitalia similar to Sphinx caligineus caligineus, but gnathos less obviously sinuate, the lobes much shorter; valve shorter, more rounded apically; harpe with processes shorter, the dorsal one not curved dorsad apically, the ventral one much narrower; aedeagus with apical lobe much shorter even than in Sphinx pinastri, more similar to that of Sphinx oberthueri. In the female genitalia, ostial plate with lobe more deeply sinuate than in Sphinx caligineus caligineus.


Female Sphinx caligineus sinicus, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 30.vi.1995. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Female Sphinx caligineus sinicus, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

ADULT BIOLOGY

Common in hilly areas with a good density of pines (Pinus species).


Xiangshan (Fragrant Hills), Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

FLIGHT-TIME

China: iv (Ningbo; Baihua Shan, Beijing); v (Tianjin; Hebei); 7.v (Xingshan); 13.v (Beijing); 21-27.vi (Beijing); 30.vi (Hangzhou; Yanyuan); vii (Shandong; Nanjing); 3-25.vii (Huili); 6-10.vii (Yongsheng); 4.viii (Xichang). South Korea: vii ([unspecified locality]).

Two generations a year, with adults flying in (April)/May/June and July-September (Yang, 1978).

Park et al. (1999) gives July for Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Oval (2.13 x 3.09mm). Very large for the size of moth.

LARVA: Full-fed 47--50mm.

Generally found about 2.0-2.5m off the ground among the needles of terminal shoots, where full-grown larvae are extremely well camouflaged if resting along a twig.

Larvae of this species produce an extraordinary amount of frass for the amount of vegetable matter they eat. Often, two or more of the frass pellets may be stuck together.


Fourth instar larva of Sphinx caligineus sinicus, Xiangshan, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown larva of Sphinx caligineus sinicus, Xiangshan, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown larva of Sphinx caligineus sinicus in alarm position, Xiangshan, Beijing, China, 2.ix.2005. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

PUPA: 28--40mm. Dark mahogany brown and glossy, with even darker wing cases and thorax. Head projecting frontad, eyes slightly bulbous, with no free tongue-case as found in related members of the genus. Tongue-case flush with the legs and reaching to the wing tips. Whole pupa finely punctate. Spiracular ridges present on movable abdominal segments. Cremaster triangular to almost conical, narrow, with a double sharp point; tuberculate. Similar to that of Callambulyx tatarinovii. Formed in an almost silk-free cell in the soil. The overwintering stage.


Pupa of Sphinx caligineus sinicus, Xiangshan, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

Larval hostplants. Mainly on Pinus tabulaeformis to the west and north of Beijing (Zhu & Wang, 1997; Pittaway, pers. obs. 2003), as well as the ornamental Pinus armandii (Pittaway, pers. obs. 2003). In Guangdong, Mell (1922b) recorded Sphinx caligineus brunnescens on the native pine, Pinus massoniana. Other native hostplants of Sphinx caligineus in China are unknown but Wang (1992) listed the introduced pines Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda for Hunan. The record on Betula (Wang, 1992) is certainly erroneous.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Hebei (Chengde); Beijing (Xiangshan; Botanical Garden; Baihua Shan); Tianjin; Shandong; Shaanxi (Yangling); Jiangsu (Nanjing); Anhui (Mt. Huang Shan); Shanghai; Zhejiang (Hangzhou; Ningbo; Sheshan); Hubei (Xingshan, 1300m); Sichuan (Leibo; Huili; Xichang; Yanyuan, 1200m); Yunnan (Yongsheng, 2250m); Hunan (Luoxiao Shan); Guangdong.

Records in the Chinese literature from southeastern Xizang/Tibet (Mutu, Namjagbarwa region, 850m) (e.g. Zhang et al., 1986, pl. 1, fig. 3) are misidentifications of Sphinx oberthueri.

South Korea: Kangwon Prov. (Seolak-san); South Cholla Prov. (Baekyang Temple).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Northeastern, eastern and southern China, South Korea, northern Thailand (Inoue et al, [1996]) and southern Vietnam (R. Brechlin, pers. comm.).


Global distribution of Sphinx caligineus sinicus. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Yunnan refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)