PARUM COLLIGATA (Walker, 1856)

Female Parum colligata. Photo: © BMNH Male Parum colligata. Photo: © BMNH

TAXONOMY

Daphnusa colligata Walker, 1856, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 8: 238. Type locality: North China.

Synonym. Daphnusa colligata Walker, 1856.

Synonym. Metagastes bieti Oberthür, 1886.

Synonym. Parum colligata saturata Mell, 1922.

Synonym. Parum colligata tristis Bryk, 1944.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 69--90mm. Forewing upperside ground-colour grey tinged with brown, and with olive-brown and black markings. The outer border from R5 to tornus broad and much paler, limited by a curved grey-white submarginal line. At the apex between R5 and R4 a rounded blackish spot defined on the inside by grey-white as in Craspedortha porphyria, but much more distinct. A dark brown or blackish longitudinal streak from the submarginal line at M1, passing through the lower angle of cell along its lower edge to about the middle, where it joins the discal band. Discal band from costa to inner margin, slightly curved, grey, narrower between lower edge of cell and costa. A post-discal olive-brown oblique band, curved inwards at the costa. A conspicuous but small silvery-white spot at lower angle of cell. Costal margin grey, more or less suffused brown. Hindwing upperside smoky-brown. A darker submarginal line at M2 and M3, about mid-way between cell and margin, sometimes indistinct. A curved heavy black anal bar from anal angle to Cu1 (Bell & Scott, 1937).

Underside similar to upperside. Forewing with the longitudinal streak black and well marked. Hindwing with a similar streak between veins M1 and M2, not entering the cell. A pale outer border as on fore wing and a narrow post-discal grey-white band divided by an indistinct blackish line (Bell & Scott, 1937).

Head, thorax, antenna and abdomen pale brown; abdomen darker below, antenna grey or greyish-white above. Pilifer short. Retinaculum occasionally vestigial, frenulum shortened (Bell & Scott, 1937).

In the male genitalia, valva (clasper) sole-shaped, rounded apically, hairy on the inner surface; distal part of harpe forming a strongly chitinized ventral ridge, which is longitudinal, slightly bent dorsad, granulose, with the ventral surface slightly concave and the dorsal side convex. Apical edge of aedeagus bent proximad at the right and left side (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903).


Adult Parum colligata in normal resting posture, Taiwan. Photo: © Felix Lin. Adult Parum colligata in normal resting posture, Jiucai Ling, Guizhou, China. Photo: © Viktor Sinjaev. Adult Parum colligata in normal resting posture, Mai Chau, Hoa Binh Prov., Vietnam, 01.v.2011. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

ADULT BIOLOGY

A forest species in Taiwan (Lin, 2000).


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 21.iii-27.vii (Guangdong); iv (Guizhou; Hong Kong); v-vi (Yunnan); vi (Guizhou; Guangdong; Zhejiang; Hong Kong); vii (Xizang/Tibet); 22.vi-10.viii (Shanghai); viii (Fujian; Zhejiang); 5-18.viii (Zhejiang); ix (Shaanxi). Taiwan: 17.iv (Nantou Hsien); iv-v (Hualien Hsien). South Korea: vii [(unstated locality)]. Japan: 14.vi-14.viii (Honshu; Shikoku; Kyushu).

There are one or two generations a year in northern China, with adults flying between May and July (Yang, 1978). Farther south, there may be up to four generations.

Park et al. (1999) give mid May until late September as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Laid in masses, oval 1.6 x 1.3 mm, milky white, turning to yellow green before hatching in 6 days; chorion not eaten (Lin, 2000).


Eggs of Parum colligata, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

LARVA: Full-fed 50--70mm. First instar larva (L1) head pale yellow, body whitish green, body length 3.75 mm, horn black 1.2 mm, lasting 3 days. Intermediate instar larvae (L2-L5) head and body pale green to yellow green and granulated, head triangular, face with 2 whitish lines, body lateral with oblique whitish line, body length 15-48 mm, horn 3-8 mm. Final instar larvae (L6) head whitish green, with 2 white lines, body whitish green with whitish granulation, lateral with white oblique line, dorso-central with violet red line; horn black in some, 10 mm. Hatching to pre-pupa 27 days, pre-pupa to pupa 4 days (Lin, 2000).


Full-grown final instar mottled form larva of Parum colligata, Shikanshuei, Sindian, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan. Photo: © Shipher Wu. Full-grown larval colour forms of Parum colligata. Image: Mell, 1922b Part-grown final instar green form larva of Parum colligata, Taiwan. Photo: © C.S. Lin Full-grown final instar green form larva of Parum colligata, Beijing Botanical Garden, China, 06.ix.2005. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

PUPA: 33--35mm. Brown, rough and rugose, not glossy, anterior blunt. Adult eclosion after 12 days (Lin, 2000).


Pupa of Parum colligata. Image: Mell, 1922b Pupa of Parum colligata. Image: Mell, 1922b Pupa of Parum colligata, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

Larval hostplants. Recorded in Guangdong on Broussonetia kaempferi and Broussonetia papyrifera (Mell, 1922b); the latter is also utilized around Beijing (Pittaway, pers. obs. 2005). Chu & Wang (1980) also listed Morus alba. Apparently monophagous on Moraceae; the record on Salix (Lin, 1987) is highly suspect.

Recorded in Taiwan on Broussonetia papyrifera (Lin, 2000).

Recorded in Korea on Broussonetia kazinoki and B. papyrifera (Park et al., 1999).

Recorded in Japan from B. kazinoki (Nozakai & Miyata, 1989).

In Laos and Thailand, also recorded from Maclura fruticosa (Eitschberger & Ihle, 2008).


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


Final instar green form larva of Parum colligata with braconid parasites (and hyperparasite), Beijing Botanical Garden, China, 06.ix.2005. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Nei Mongol (Dolonnur); Jilin; Liaoning; Hebei; Beijing (Botanical Garden); Shandong (Qingdao); Shaanxi (Yangling; Xunyang, 1380m); Qinghai (Nangqian County); Henan; Anhui (Mt. Huang Shan); Shanghai; Zhejiang (Ningpo; Tianmu Shan); Hubei (Lichuan; Xianfeng); Sichuan (Kangding; Pengshui; Wulong, near Fuling); Yunnan (Changning Co., Songzhishanding, 2800m; Gaoligong Shan; Simao/Pu'er); Xizang/Tibet (Xiachayu, Zayu County); Guizhou (Jiucai Ling; Fanjingshan, Tongren County)); Hunan (Dayong); Jiangxi (Wanzai); Fujian (Longqi Shan; Guangze, 1200m); Guangdong (Guangzhou); Hong Kong (Clear Water Bay; Sai Kung); Hainan (Duowen Ling, nr Lingao; Longhushan, Wenchang City).

Taiwan: Miaoli Hsien; Taitung; Hualien Hsien (Taroko National Park); Kaohsiung Hsien (Shanping, 640m); Nantou Hsien (Puli; Jenai; Bukai; Nansanchi; Basienshan, 800m); Tainan Hsien (Kuantzuling); Taipei Hsien (Fushan; Sindian).

South Korea: Kyonggi Prov. (Suwon; Gwangleung; Myungji-san; Soyo-san; Baeklyoung-do); Kangwon Prov. (Goseong; Chiak-san; Donghae; Chuncheon; Youngwol); North Chungchong Prov. (Chupungryung; Hwayangdong; Suanbo; Wolak-san); South Chungchong Prov. (Gyeryong-san; Chilgab-san); North Cholla Prov. (Jiri-san; Naebyun-san; Muju); South Cholla Prov. (Baekyang Temple; Naju; Jin-do; Soheuksan-do; Gurye); North Kyongsang Prov. (Sobaek-san; Naeyon-san; Juwang-san; Ulleung-do; Mungyungsaejae; Bongwha; Uisong); South Kyongsang Prov. (Baekun-san; Hwangsuk-san; Hamyang; Jinyang; Yeohang-san; Jinju; Goeje-do; Namhae-do; Jishim-do; Sacheon; Goseong; Milyang; Sancheong; Uiryong; Tongyoung; Hadong; Hapcheon); Cheju Prov. (Cheju-do; Topyung; Seoguipo; Hare-ri; Sungpanak).

Japan: Hokkaido; Honshu (Tokyo; Mikaboyama, 750m); Shikoku (Kuroson; Kochi); Kyushu (Hikosan; Yakuguchi); Tsushima; Ryukyu Archipelago (Amamioshima; Okinawa).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Occurs from Korea and Japan south throughout eastern and central China and Taiwan to Vietnam, northern Thailand, northeastern Burma/Myanmar (Shan States) and northeastern India (Arunachal Pradesh).


Global distribution of Parum colligata. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Polycentric -- Japanese, Sinopacific, Sinotibetan and Yunnan refugia.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)