NEOGURELCA HIMACHALA SANGAICA (Butler, [1876]) -- Crisp-banded hawkmoth

Female Neogurelca himachala sangaica. Photo: © NHMUK Male Neogurelca himachala sangaica. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Lophura sangaica Butler, [1876], Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1875: 621. Type locality: [China,] Shanghai.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 34--46mm. At rest the adult takes up a somewhat contorted pose.


Male Neogurelca himachala sangaica, 'Orioles Singing in the Willows', West Lake, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 12.ix.2016. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Female Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Yellow Dragon Cave, Geling Hill, West Lake, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Female Neogurelca himachala sangaica (side-view), Yellow Dragon Cave, Geling Hill, West Lake, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Feeding Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Japan. Photo: © Koich Kimura.

ADULT BIOLOGY

The adults do not fly very much and are active for only a few hours just after day-break and/or at dusk. Females call (scent) in the early morning and may contine to do so for some hours if no male arrives.

A noisy flyer which can manoeuvre with precision in and out of branches and undergrowth, but which will dart off at high speed if disturbed. Rests by day (and night) among dead leaves or on the bark of trees. Great care is taken to make sure that the background matches the colour of the wings -- rough bark is preferred.

Attracted to the flowers of Duranta erecta in Hong Kong.


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 1.iv (Zhejiang); vi (Hubei; Shanghai; Zhejiang); vii (Jiangxi); viii (Guangdong; Zhejiang); ix (Hong Kong; Zhejiang; Shanghai); x-xi (Zhejiang; Guangxi); 4.xii (Hong Kong). Taiwan: v (Kaohsiung Hsien); vii (Tainan Hsien; Kaohsiung Hsien); ix (Taipei). Japan: 18.iv (Honshu); v-vii (Kyushu); vi-vii (Honshu; Yakushima); viii (Hokkaido); viii-xi (Honshu).

In northern China there are two generations per year, with adults flying between June and September (Yang, 1978).

Park et al. (1999) give late June until late September as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA: Full-fed 42--45mm. Polychromatic: Dark brown, grey-brown or yellowish-green with brown markings. In the final instar head nearly oval and held almost horizontally when at rest. True clypeus narrow, about one-half length of head, basal angles hardly rounded. False clypeus narrow, its apex forming a gothic arch over the apex of true clypeus. Labrum one-half- length of and slightly broader than clypeus. Ligula narrow kidney-shaped. Mandible with the cutting-edge toothed. Eyes with 1 and 2 forming an angle of about 120° with 3, 4 and 6, which are in a straight line; 1, 2 and 3 about one eye-diameter apart, 4 slightly further from 3; 6 two diameters from 4; 5 forming an equilateral triangle with 4 and 6; eye 3 larger than the rest.

Colour of head very variable, green, yellow, grey or brown. A dark brown stripe separating face from cheek. Surface dull and set with short, curved, translucent hairs, each rising from a minute tubercle. Body dull, smooth and cylindrical, but if disturbed the thoracic segments are flared laterally into flanges, similar to those found in Acosmeryx. Horn very long, fairly thick at base, tapering gently to beyond middle and then thickening gently, tip slightly bifid, each arm ending in two points, each of which bears a seta; the basal half of the horn straight and held normally horizontal, the distal half strongly up-curved; surface covered with very regularly placed, small tubercles, each bearing a long and strong seta. This long horn is moved freely in a vertical plane when the larva is walking.

Body equally variable in ground-colour, with the markings fainter or stronger in some forms. In all, a yellow dorso-lateral stripe runs from segment 2 to the base of the horn, this sharply defined above by brown, very narrowly on 2 to 6, more broadly on remaining segments. Segments 2 and 3 suffused with dark brown below the dorso-lateral stripe, and segment 4 with a smaller patch of dark brown not reaching the subdorsal stripe; the hind portion of segment 7 and most of 8 suffused with dark brown below the dorso-lateral stripe and also above it nearly to the dorsum, the stripe represented on 8 by a line of yellow spots. There are whitish oblique stripes in all colour forms, which are sharply defined on segments 5 to 7, missing on 8 and less sharply defined on segments 9 to 11; all stop at the dorso-lateral stripe and are edged above to a greater or lesser extent by dark brown. The dark brown colour may spread on to the dorsum of segments 7 to 11 as a diamond-shaped mark on each segment. Ventral surface mainly brown on abdomen, less so on thorax. Horn smoky-black with black tubercles; legs flesh-colour; prolegs, anal flap and claspers dark brown. Spiracles white with a broad dark brown band across the middle.

Although smaller larvae prefer resting under leaves, larger larvae are to be found on the twining stems of the hostplant, often deep among the foliage. Creepers growing in and on dense shaded shrubs under overhanging trees are preferred during the hot summer months.


Full-grown dark-brown form larva of Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Gueishan, Sindian, Taipei, Taiwan. Photo: © Shipher Wu. Full-grown medium-brown form larva of Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown green form larva of Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

PUPA: 23--25mm.; breadth 8mm. Colour ochreous but transluscent, with the developing adult clearly visible through the cuticle. Head, tongue, wing-case, legs, antenna and thorax with regular interrupted transverse bars of leaden colour, these more prominant dorsally. Intersegmental cuticle of movable segments 8, 9 and 10 deep chestnut. All spiracles and shaft of cremaster dark brown\black, with the spiracles lying on black patches. Stoutish in build, somewhat shiny, and not very mobile. Head elongate but rounded in front; toungue-case not projecting and flush with the surface of the body; shoulders prominent. Antenna shorter than fore leg, and there is a well-developed coxal piece. Head with vertex. Thorax superficially, transversely, irregularly lined. Wing-case smooth, bulging ventrally, thus giving the pupa a 'beer-belly'. Abdomen smooth except for very superficial transverse folds and pits. There are very small erect hairs on the frons and around the spiracles. There is some sculpturing on segment 4 consisting of a small transverse subdorsal weal just behind the front margin, and a small pit above and behind the spiracle of 6. The spiracles of 9, 10 and 11 are situated on the hind face of a ridge running round the front margins of those segments. Segment 9 has small, irregular, ante-spiracular ridges. Spiracle of 2 covered by a rounded lobe projecting from the front margin of 3, its front edge raised. Remaining spiracles broadly oval, edges of central slit raised. Cremaster very short, conical, ending in a short, stout, cylindrical shaft bearing about twelve very short-stemmed anchor-shaped hooklets.

Formed in a folded leaf above or on the ground, this held together by a few thick strands of gummy silk but leaving part of the fold open frontad. As the larva shrinks it often forcibly ejects several jets of excess water through this opening.


Pupa of Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Pupa of Neogurelca himachala sangaica, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

Larval hostplants. As in India, Paederia is utilized in China (Pittaway, pers. obs. 2004) and Japan.

[In captivity, larvae will not accept Galium or Cephalanthus occidentalis as substitutes for Paederia. They will reluctantly feed on the former but die some weeks later.]


Paederia foetida, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Hebei; Beijing; Shaanxi; Shanghai; Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan; Hangzhou); Hubei (Changyang); Hunan; Jiangxi (Jiujiang); Fujian (Liufang); Guangdong (E. Nan Ling; Xiaolan; Xiaolou); Hong Kong; Guangxi (Liuzhou).

Kendrick (2002) states that this species is only a rare stray in Hong Kong, with only four individuals having been recorded.

Taiwan: Tainan Hsien (Kuantzuling, 1000'); Nantou Hsien (Puli); Kaohsiung Hsien (Shanping, 640m; Liukuei); Taipei (Sindian); Taipei Hsien (Fushan).

North Korea: South Hamgyong Prov. (Wonsan).

South Korea: Kyonggi Prov. (Gwangleung); North Chungchong Prov. (Songni-san); North Cholla Prov. (Jiri-san); South Cholla Prov. (Baekyang Temple; Wolchul-san; Seonam Temple; Gwangju); North Kyongsang Prov. (Andong); South Kyongsang Prov. (Geoje-do; Namhae; Ulsan; Jinju; Hamyang); Cheju Prov. (Cheju-do; Halla-san; Youngsil; Ara-dong; Topyung; Seoguipo; Soheung; Isidol).

Japan: Hokkaido (Obirashibe); Honshu (Chiuzenji; Fushiki; Kanazawa; Kawazaki; Kobe; Nagasaki; Niigata; Nikko; Oiwake; Yoshino; Dorokawa; Shimonoseki; Tokei-ji; Tokyo; Yokohama; Nashimoto; Kaibara; Hirakura; Fujimi Heights; Bushi); Shikoku (Matsuyama); Kyushu (Kagoshima; Higo Prefecture; Nagasaki; Chiran); Tsushima; Tanegashima; Ryukyu Archipelago (Yakushima).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Central and eastern China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan.


Global distribution of Neogurelca himachala sangaica. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)