MACROGLOSSUM PYRRHOSTICTA Butler, 1875

Female Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. Photo: © BMNH Male Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. Photo: © BMNH Fresh Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, Hong Kong, China. Photo: © John Tennent

TAXONOMY

Macroglossa pyrrhosticta Butler, 1875, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1875: 242. Type locality: China, Shanghai.

Synonym. Macroglossa catapyrrha Butler, 1875.

Synonym. Macroglossum pyrrhosticta albifascia (Mell, 1922).

Synonym. Macroglossum pyrrhosticta ferrea (Mell, 1922).

Synonym. Macroglossum fukienensis Chu & Wang, 1980, Acta zootaxon. sin. 5: 420. Type locality: China, Fujian, Jianyang.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 42--56mm. Very similar to Macroglossum insipida, but larger. Forewing upperside with pattern of lines similar to that of Macroglossum insipida, but the antemedian band and first discal line further apart, the grey spaces between the lines duller and more olive green, the wings thus appearing less variegated. The undersides of both sets of wings are bright rust-coloured as in Macroglossum insipida, as is the underside of the abdomen.

Male genitalia very similar to those of Macroglossum insipida, but the upper lobe of the harpe tapered, without, or with few teeth on the dorsal edge; process of aedeagus longer and pointed.


Male Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, Jinghong, Yunnan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Male Macroglossum pyrrhosticta (side view), Jinghong, Yunnan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Macroglossum pyrrhosticta at flowers, Hong Kong, China. Photo: © Roger Kendrick

ADULT BIOLOGY

A widespread species found in many types of open habitats, even mountain meadows and logged woodland. Some adults will come to light, but most frequent flowers, particularly Duranta erecta.


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 31.v (Guangdong); vi (Hubei); vi-vii (Sichuan; Hainan); vii (Shanghai; Jiangxi; Hunan; Fujian); vii-x (Zhejiang); viii (Guangdong; Yunnan); ix (Sichuan); ix-xi (Hong Kong). Taiwan: iv-v (Kaohsiung Hsien); v (Nantou Hsien); vi (Taipei); vii (Tainan Hsien; Pingtung Hsien); xi (Pingtung Hsien). Japan: ii-x (Ryukyu Archipelago); 18.v-14.vi (Hahajima); 20.vi-28.viii (Hokkaido); viii-x (Honshu; Hahajima; Kyushu). Russia: 30.vii (Kurile Islands); 3-16.viii (Primorskiy Kray).

Park et al. (1999) give late June until late October as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Pale transluscent white/grey when freshly laid, turning greenish-yellow with age. Slightly oval, shiny and smooth. Laid singly on the underside of younger leaves.


Egg of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta on Paederia scandens, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

LARVA: Full-fed 50mm.; breadth 9.5 mm.; horn 7 mm. According to Bell & Scott (1937), in the final instar horn slightly curved, of medium length, tapering evenly to a sharp point, minutely tuberculate. Surface dull and smooth. A rather thick-set, stout larva.

First and second instar larvae are slate grey with a dark horn, and very shiny. With growth the whole body becomes greener, patterned and tuberculate. In the final instar, head dark green. Body with a pale subdorsal and a pale dorso-lateral stripe from head to horn. Segments 2-4 more apple-green, but the rest of the body pale bluish-green (even paler dorsally). Covered with encicling bands of widely spaced white spots, giving the body a speckled appearance. The dorso-lateral stripe is yellow on segments 2-4, white on the remaining segments, and edged above with green. Above this stripe there are a number of short narrow stripes dorsally, which disappear on each side of the dorsal line, thus leaving a subdorsal stripe of the body-colour. There are seven narrow, greenish oblique lateral stripes. The black-tubercled horn is purplish (bluish dorsally) with the terminal third yellowish-orange. Legs reddish, basal segment with a shiny black band. Spiracles white, with a broad red band across the middle.

Although smaller larvae prefer resting under leaves, larger larvae are to be found on the twining stems of the hostplant, often deep among the foliage. Creepers growing in and on dense shaded shrubs, or over fences under overhanging trees, are preferred during the hot summer months. The larval presence is generally given away by denuded leading shoots, as young leaves are preferred.


Second instar larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta on Paederia scandens, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Third instar larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta on Paederia scandens, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Third instar green form larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, Jinghong, Yunnan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Full-grown green form larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta in 'disturbed' pose, Beijing, China, 6.ix.2005. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Full-grown green form larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta on Paederia scandens, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Final instar green form larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta on Paederia scandens, Hong Kong, China. Photo: © Kent H. K. Li. Full-grown brown form larva of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. Image: Mell, 1922b

PUPA: 40mm.; breadth 11mm. Colour transluscent greyish-yellow, with a green tinge on head, thorax and wing-case, sparsely dotted with brown. Thorax with a narrow black dorsal stripe, continued as a greyish stripe (heart line) on abdomen. Tongue, inner margin of wing and spiracles black; cremaster with basal half brown above, rest black. Tongue-case beyond head prominent, laterally compressed, cariniform, projecting 3.5mm. frontad and ventad; the rest lying flush between the wing-cases. Antenna slightly shorter than fore leg, reaching to middle of wing-case. Surface of head, thorax and wing-case shiny and smooth; abdomen shiny and pitted dorsally and ventrally. Hind bevels of segments 8 to 10 smooth, front bevels of 9 to 11 with many transversely elongate tubercles. Cremaster slightly triangular, dorso-ventrally flattened, tip bifid, the arms widely separated and very fine; venter hollow, with thick lateral extensor ridges (Bell & Scott, 1937).

Formed in a weak sliken cocoon among litter on the ground.


Pupa of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. Image: Mell, 1922b Pupa of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Pupa of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

Larval hostplants. Paederia scandens and Psychotria rubra (Rubiaceae) in Hong Kong, Paederia foetida in India (Bell & Scott, 1937), and on Paederia tomentosa and P. scandens in mainland China.

[Larger larvae will transfer to Pentas lanceolata in captivity.]


Paederia scandens, Hong Kong, China. Photo: © Kent H. K. Li. Paederia scandens, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

PARASITOIDS

Ichneumonid wasp (?Amblyjoppa sp.) reared from a pupa, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Beijing (Botanical Garden); Shanxi (Taiyuan); Shanghai (Jiading, 1000'); Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan; Hangzhou); Hubei (Changyang); Sichuan (Baoxing; Emei Shan, 3620'; Kangding; Chengdu; Qionglai Shan, Jiaxing; Xiaolou); Chongqing (Fengjie); Yunnan (Kunming; Yanmen; Menglun; Ganlanba; Simao/Pu'er); south Xizang/Tibet (Mutu, Namjagbarwa region, 850m (Wang, 1988); Zhangmu, 2200m; Milin, 2900m); Hunan (Yangming Shan, nr. Xintian); Jiangxi (Jiujiang; Tiancun, nr. Xingguo); Fujian (Jianyang); Guangdong (Fuzhou; Nanling National Forest Park, 1100m); Hong Kong; Hainan (??Dwa Bi, 230m; Wuzhi Shan).

Taiwan: Tainan Hsien (Kuantzuling); Chiai Hsien (Shuicheliao); Taipei (Neihu); Taipei Hsien (Fushan); Nantou Hsien (Puli); Kaohsiung Hsien (Shanping, 640m); Pingtung Hsien (Kenting; Sheting).

North Korea: South Hamgyong Prov. (Wonsan).

South Korea: Seoul (Cheongyang-ri); Kyonggi Prov. (Gwangleung; Suwon); North Cholla Prov. (Jiri-san; Namwon); South Cholla Prov. (Baekyang Temple; Mudeung-san; Wolchul-san; Jin-do; Geomum-do; Duryun-san; Yeosu); North Kyongsang Prov. (Ulleung-do); South Kyongsang Prov. (Pusan Hyundai; Dongrae; Geoje-do; Namhae-do; Goseong; Sancheong; Ulsan; Jinju; Hadong); Cheju Prov. (Cheju-do; Chuja-do; Halla-san; Biyang-do; Haean-dong; Ara-dong; Seoguipo; Sungpanak; Youngsil; Sanbang-san; Gwanglyoung; Sinsan; Soheung; Cheonjiyun; Gyolae-ri).

Japan: Hokkaido; Hahajima (Okimura; Komoriyama); Honshu (Chigasaki; Tokyo; Taira; Fujisawa; Nagano; Iruma; Yoshino; Yokohama; Kyoto); Shikoku (Onosan); Kyushu (Kagoshima; Yuwan); Tsushima; Tanegashima; Chichi-jima (Oomura); Hachijojima (Hachijo-Fuji); Ryukyu Archipelago (Yakushima; Okinawa, Nago; Amamioshima; Ishigakishima).

Russia: Primorskiy Kray (Primorskiy); Kurile Islands (Kunashir).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Sri Lanka, eastern India, Nepal, Thailand, central and eastern China, South Korea, North Korea, Japan, the southern Russian Far East, Taiwan, Philippines (Luzon), Malaysia (Sarawak) and Indonesia.

Also a recent colonist of Hawaii, the first specimen having been recorded in 1976 from Oahu (United States Department of Agriculture, 1976).


Global distribution of Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)