MARUMBA GASCHKEWITSCHII COMPLACENS (Walker, [1865])

Female Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens. Photo: © NHMUK Male Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Smerinthus complacens Walker, [1865], List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 31: 40. Type locality: China, [Fujian,] Amoy [Xiamen].

Synonym. Marumba complacens circumcincta Eitschberger, 2012, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 68: 62.

Synonym. Marumba complacens kernbachi Eitschberger & Hoa Binh Ngguyen, 2012, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 68: 65.

Synonym. Marumba omeii Clark, 1936, Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 15: 82-83.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Female Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Male Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Jiucai Ling, Guizhou, China. Photo: © Viktor Sinjaev

ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME

China: vii (Sichuan; Xizang/Tibet).

Kendrick (2002) states that this species is possibly trivoltine in Hong Kong, with adults recorded from late February to mid March, late May, and mid September to mid October.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Oval (1.57 x 2.07mm). Initially a translucent pale jade green, but turning yellowish-green prior to hatching.


Egg of Marumba echephron, Japan. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

LARVA: Full-fed 75--83mm.

Newly hatched larvae are pale yellow with a round head and, in some, an orange tint to the horn. Only in the second instar does the characteristic triangular head appear, with the basic body colour turning gradually green. At this stage the final yellow oblique lateral lines and yellow body tubercles become more and more pronounced. The horn becomes more orange.


Second instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Early third instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Fourth instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Fifth instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Penultimate instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

For the first few instars young larvae rest and feed stretched out along the midrib under a leaf. This behaviour makes them appear very elongate. Most larvae go through five or six instars. If the hostplant is of poor quality, some may even undergo seven.


Full-grown green form larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown green-grey form larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown yellow form larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown pre-pupation form larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens. Image: Mell, 1922b

PUPA: 40--48mm. Reddish mahogany brown and glossy; tapering caudad from a blunt head and thorax. Head tuberculate, with two vertical, blunt, broad crests frontad. Proboscis not present, but replaced by a knob-like tubercle. Wings smooth, abdominal segments finely punctate. Spiracular ridges present on movable abdominal segments. Cremaster broadly conical, with a sharp point; tuberculate. Similar to that of Callambulyx tatarinovii, but head more rough and with two crest-like tubercles frontad, as found in most species of Marumba. Formed in an almost silk-free cell in the soil. The overwintering stage.


Pupa of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens (lateral view), Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Pupa of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens (ventral view), Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Pupa of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens (dorsal view), Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

Larval hostplants. Prunus persica in Hong Kong.


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Central and southeastern China, from Ningxia and Shaanxi (Yangling; Huangling; Xunyang, 1380m) south to Sichuan (Wulong, nr. Fuling; Pengshui; Emei Shan) and eastern Xizang/Tibet (Baxoi County; Langmai, Gonjo County (3045'N, 9852'E)), then east to Shanghai, Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan) and Fujian (Guangze, 1200m) and south through Guangdong, Hong Kong and Guangxi (at low altitude) to Hainan Island (Sanya, Mt. Jianfengling).

The core distributions of the current four subspecies of M. gaschkewitschii are as follows:

Three former subspecies, namely M. g. echephron (Boisduval, [1875]), M. g. harutai Eitschberger & Ihle, 2012, and M. g. irata Joicey & Kaye, 1917, are now considered to be distinct species (Eitschberger, 2012).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Central and southeastern China, and northern Vietnam.


Global distribution of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)