MARUMBA GASCHKEWITSCHII CARSTANJENI (Staudinger, 1887)

Female Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni. Photo: © NHMUK Male Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni. Photo: © NHMUK Male Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni, dark form. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Smerinthus carstanjeni Staudinger, 1887, In: Romanoff (ed.), Mém. Lépid. 3: 159. Type locality: [Russia, Khabarovskiy Kray/Primorskiy Kray] Ussuri; [Russia, Primorskiy Kray,] Suifun [Suifen].

Synonym. Smerinthus gaschkewitschii carstanjeni Staudinger, 1887.

Synonym. Marumba gaschkewitschii coreana Clark, 1937, Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 16: 30.

Synonym. Marumba gaschkewitschii koreuemba Bryk, 1946, Arkiv för Zoologi (A) 38: 67.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION


Resting male of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni, Xiangshan (Fragrant Hills), Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway. Male Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni at light, near Zanadvorovka, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 27.vii.2009. Photo: © Anton Kozlov. Male Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni, near Sofia-Dall (border district), Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 7.07.2014. Photo: © Evgenij Komarov. Pair of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2.07.2014. Photo: © Evgenij Komarov.

ADULT BIOLOGY

M. gaschkewitschii occurs in most habitats, including cities and orchards, and reaches over 2000m in Yunnan (Mell, 1935) and Nepal. Particularly common in montane forests rich in species of Prunus and Pyrus (Mell, 1935). Also common in the hills to the west and north of Beijing in the Ziziphus\Vitex\Rhus vegetation zone.


Xiangshan (Fragrant Hills), Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

FLIGHT-TIME

China: 8.vi-8.vii (Nei Mongol); 16-25.vi (Jilin); vii (Liaoning). North Korea: 1-12.vii (North Pyongan Province). South Korea: 20-28.vi (Ulleung-do). Russia: 14.vi-1.viii (Khabarovskiy Kray); 2-27.vii (Primorskiy Kray).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Oval (1.57 x 2.07mm). Initially a translucent pale jade green, but turning yellowish-green prior to hatching.


Egg of Marumba echephron, Japan. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

LARVA: Full-fed 75--83mm.

Newly hatched larvae are pale yellow with a round head and, in some, an orange tint to the horn. Only in the second instar does the characteristic triangular head appear, with the basic body colour turning gradually green. At this stage the final yellow oblique lateral lines and yellow body tubercles become more and more pronounced. The horn becomes more orange.


Second instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Early third instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Fourth instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Fifth instar larva of Marumba gaschkewitschii complacens, Sichuan, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

For the first few instars young larvae rest and feed stretched out along the midrib under a leaf. This behaviour makes them appear very elongate.

More mature larvae generally feed at between 0.5 and 1.5m off the ground on terminal branches of bushes rather than trees. Smaller plants set in amongst other shrubs are preferred. Larvae can be met with at very high densities, with often four or five per branch. Most larvae go through six instars.


Full-grown grey-green form of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni on Crataegus, Chengde, Hebei, China, 31.viii.2003. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown yellow-green form of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni on Ziziphus, Xiangshan, Beijing, China, 29.viii.2003. Photo: © Tony Pittaway Full-grown yellow-green form of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni on Ziziphus, Xiangshan, Beijing, China, 6.ix.2005. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

PUPA: 40--48mm. Reddish mahogany brown and glossy; tapering caudad from a blunt head and thorax. Head tuberculate, with two vertical, blunt, broad crests frontad. Proboscis not present, but replaced by a knob-like tubercle. Wings smooth, abdominal segments finely punctate. Spiracular ridges present on movable abdominal segments. Cremaster broadly conical, with a sharp point; tuberculate. Similar to that of Callambulyx tatarinovii, but head more rough and with two crest-like tubercles frontad, as found in most species of Marumba. Formed in an almost silk-free cell in the soil. The overwintering stage.


Pupa of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni, Xiangshan, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway

Larval hostplants. Recorded in Primorskiy Kray, Russia, on Prunus, Pyrus and Crataegus (Derzhavets, 1984); also on Malus baccata and Crataegus pinnatifida (Izerskiy, 1999b).

Recorded in Korea on Kerria japonica, Prunus mume, P. persica, P. salicina, P. serrulata, Malus pumila and Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Park et al., 1999). However, records from Buxus microphylla var. koreana are suspect.

For China, Yang (1978) and Chu & Wang (1980) also give Ziziphus mauritiana [Z. jujuba]. The first author was able to confirm this unusual hostplant by finding numerous full-grown larvae on Z. jujuba shrubs in the hills west of Beijing (Xiangshan) during late August (Pittaway, pers. obs. 2003). Larvae were also common on apricot Prunus armeniaca at Chengde. However, records from Buxus microphylla and Euonymus alatus (Chang, 1989) are suspect, while those on Vitis vinifera (Chu et al., 1979; Chu & Wang, 1980) are probably erroneous. The source and veracity of the record on Weigela (Zhang, 1994) are unknown.

In captivity the larvae found on Ziziphus and Prunus armeniaca readily transferred to Crataegus (Pittaway, pers. obs. 2003).


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: E Nei Mongol (Balin; Zalantun/Butha Qi; Chifeng/Ulanhad; Ongniud Qi; Uxin Qi; Hulunbuir Region, Sanhaodian); Heilongjiang (Harbin; Lalin); Jilin (Jiaohe, Lafa Shan); Liaoning (Huanren; Changhai, Dachangshan Island); Hebei; Beijing (Xiangshan; Botanical Garden).

Korea: The entire Korean Peninsula (including Cheju-do and Ulleung-do).

Russia: Transbaikalia (Kyra; Khapcheranga; Undino-Posel'e); Amurskaya (Belogorsk; Blagoveshchensk; Uril area; Zeya); Yevreyskaya (Bastak); Khabarovskiy Kray (Bolshekhekhtsyrskii Nature Reserve, Khabarovsk suburbs; Slavyanka; Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Pivan); Kamchatka; Primorskiy Kray (Kaymanovka; Lesogor'e; Dal'nerechensk; Vityaz Bay; Khasan area; Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve; Novovladimirovka; Pogranichniy; near Kalinovka; Andreevka; Anisimovka).

The core distributions of the current four subspecies of M. gaschkewitschii are as follows:

Three former subspecies, namely M. g. echephron (Boisduval, [1875]), M. g. harutai Eitschberger & Ihle, 2012, and M. g. irata Joicey & Kaye, 1917, are now considered to be distinct species (Eitschberger, 2012).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Russian Far East, northeastern China and the Korean Peninsula.


Global distribution of Marumba gaschkewitschii carstanjeni. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)