KENTROCHRYSALIS CONSIMILIS Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Female Kentrochrysalis consimilis. Photo: © NHMUK Male Kentrochrysalis consimilis. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Kentochrysalis [sic] consimilis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 163 (key), 164. Type locality: Japan, [Honshu, Tochigi, near Nikko,] Chinzengi [Chuzenji-ko]; Japan, [Honshu,] Tokei [Tokyo]; Japan, [Honshu, Tochigi,] Nikko.

Note. Kim, Kim, Choi, Cho & Kim (2016) have demonstrated that what were assumed to be specimens of Kentrochrysalis consimilis collected from South Korea were K. streckeri, rather than K. consimilis, based on morphology, DNA barcodes and nuclear elongation factor1 alpha (EF-1) sequences. The major morphological differences between K. streckeri and K. consimilis include the shape of forewing and hind-wing pattern elements, and the male and female genitalia. DNA barcode analysis of South Korean and Russian K. streckeri showed a maximum sequence divergence of only 0.659% (4 bp), whereas that of the South Korean specimens and Japanese K. consimilis showed a minimum sequence divergence of 2.965% (18 bp), indicating that the Korean specimens are, in fact, K. streckeri and not K. consimilis. Phylogenetic analyses, both by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods, strongly clustered the South Korean specimens and Russian K. streckeri into one group, excluding K. consimilis. The EF-1-based sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the two species also supported data from the DNA barcode, indicating the presence of K. streckeri in South Korea, instead of K. consimilis.



ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 62--72mm. Most similar in appearance to Kentrochrysalis streckeri, but differs in having the forewing upperside discal lines less dentate; the two antemedian lines distinct, ending at the inner margin in a blackish patch that is prolonged basad.

In the male genitalia, uncus suddenly narrowed to a short, pointed hook. Gnathos divided into 2 triangular lobes. Valve similar to that of Kentrochrysalis sieversi, broadest near the base. Harpe similar to that of Kentrochrysalis sieversi, but the ventral process shorter; in addition there are 5 or 6 further processes, which vary in form and position between specimens, but the most ventral is always large. Aedeagus as in Kentrochrysalis sieversi.


Disturbed Kentrochrysalis consimilis, Japan. Photo: © Kenichiro Nakao. Disturbed Kentrochrysalis consimilis, Japan. Photo: © Osamu Fukuda.

ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME

Japan: 19.v-14.vii (Honshu); 6.viii (Honshu).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA:

Third instar larva of Kentrochrysalis consimilis, Japan. Photo: © M. Yokota. Final instar larva of Kentrochrysalis consimilis, Japan. Photo: © M. Yokota.

PUPA:

Pupa of Kentrochrysalis consimilis, Japan. Photo: © M. Yokota.

Larval hostplants. Recorded from Fraxinus, Ligustrum and Syringa.


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

Japan: Honshu (Chiuzenji; Schirane; Karuizawa; Nikko; Hoppo; Mt. Daisen; Tokei-ji; Mt. Mitake, Tokyo; Kirizumi Spa, 1080m; Yunotaira Spa; Gozaishodake; Kisojihara; Mitsumine; Kiyosato, 1300m); Shikoku; Kyushu.


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Endemic to Japan. Records from mainland Asia are erroneous and are of misidentified individuals of Kentrochrysalis streckeri, as demonstrated by Kim, Kim, Choi, Cho & Kim (2016) for South Korea.


Global distribution of Kentrochrysalis consimilis. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)