HEMARIS RADIANS (Walker, 1856)

Female Hemaris radians. Photo: © NHMUK Male Hemaris radians. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Sesia radians Walker, 1856, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 8: 84. Type locality: North China, Shanghai.

Synonym. Sesia radians Walker, 1856.

Synonym. Hemaris mandarina Butler, 1875.

Synonym. Macroglossa fuciformis brunneobasalis Staudinger, 1892.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 37--40mm. Dorsal surface of thorax and abdomen naturally ochreous (with no trace of green), as are the base of the hindwings. Forewing discal cell longitudinally divided by a distinct or vestigial scale fold, rarely undivided; inner edge of marginal band unexpanded at M2, even (f. mandarina) or dentate (f. radians). Upperside of foretibia and foretarsus black; apical third of hindtibia blue-black like upperside of hindtarsus.

Male genitalia very similar to Hemaris tityus but gnathos more asymmetrical, obliquely rounded apically. Both valves slightly more spatulate. Female genitalia similar in general structure to Hemaris tityus, but antrum funnel-shaped, not square.


A plate from Nagano, 1904. Newly emerged male of Hemaris radians drying wings (bred), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Mating pair of Hemaris radians (bred), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Resting Hemaris radians, Japan. Photo: © Masamichi Furukawa. Male Hemaris radians with some residual pre-flight scales (bred 2018/19), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Tony Pittaway, leg. Serge Yevdoshenko.

ADULT BIOLOGY

A species of rich meadows in both coniferous and mixed woodlands. Ecologically, this species appears to replace Hemaris tityus over much of Siberia and the Russian Far East (Serge Yevdoshenko, pers. comm. 2018).


Typical habitat of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 5.vi.2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko.

FLIGHT-TIME

China: iv (Zhejiang); v (Gansu); vi (Zhejiang); vii (Chongqing; Jiangxi; Heilongjiang; Nei Mongol); viii-ix (Zhejiang). North Korea: vii (North Hamgyong Prov.). Japan: iv-v (Honshu); vi-viii (Hokkaido; Ryukyu Archipelago); vii (Kyushu); vii-viii (Honshu); 11.viii (Shikoku); ix (Kyushu). Russia: 8.v-11.vi (Primorskiy Kray); 10.vi (Buryatia); 6.vii (Tuva ASSR); 17.vii (Primorskiy Kray); 10.viii (Primorskiy Kray).

Park et al. (1999) give mid May until late July as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:


Egg of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 5.vi.2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Egg of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, bred 2019. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko.

LARVA:


Newly emerged larva of Hemaris radians (bred), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. First instar larva of Hemaris radians (bred), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Second instar larva of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 5.vi.2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Fourth instar larva of Hemaris radians (bred), Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Full-grown larva of Hemaris radians, Nagano, Japan. Photo: © Takahiro Yano. Full-grown larva of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko. Full-grown larva of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Serge Yevdoshenko.

PUPA:


Pupa of Hemaris radians, Andreevka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 2018. Photo: © Tony Pittaway, leg. Serge Yevdoshenko.

Larval hostplants. Recorded in Primorskiy Kray, Russia, from Lonicera and Rubia (Derzhavets, 1984). In Amurskaya, Russia, recorded from Rubia cordifolia (Streltzov, Osipov & Malikova, 2003). Recorded in Korea on Lonicera japonica (Park et al., 1999). However, Serge Yevdoshenko (pers. comm., 2018) doubts records of Lonicera, having found/reared this species only on Knautia and Scabiosa, notably Scabiosa lachnophylla in Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East (Koshkin & Yevdoshenko, 2019).


Rubia cordifolia, Beijing, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Nei Mongol (Da Hinggan Ling, ??Inn Shan, 200m; Jalaid Qi); Heilongjiang (Xiao Hinggan Ling, ??Buchalu, 1100m; ??Barim); Gansu (Maijishan, 1500m); Shanghai; Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan; Mogan Shan); Chongqing (Jinfo Shan); Jiangxi (Jiujiang).

Mongolia: Sèlèngè Prov. (Jeröö Gol/River near Duulan-Chan).

North Korea: Kangwon Prov. (Keumgang-san; Sepo); South Pyongan Prov. (Pyongyang); North Hamgyong Prov. (Hoeryong; Ungiryung; Gyungsung; Chongjin).

South Korea: Seoul; Kyonggi Prov. (Gwangleung; Cheonma-san; Soyo-san; Godae-san; Yongmun-san; Yangpyong; Hwasung); Kangwon Prov. (Seolak-san; Odae-san; Baeduk-san; Ssangyong); North Chungchong Prov. (Songni-san); North Cholla Prov. (Jiri-san); South Cholla Prov. (Baekyang Temple; Wan-do); North Kyongsang Prov. (Sangju; Jikji Temple; Juwang-san); South Kyongsang Prov. (Tongdo Temple; Hadong; Hamyang); Cheju Prov. (Cheju-do).

Japan: Hokkaido (Hakodate; Ishikawa; Mt Iwamuro); Honshu (Fushiki; Kuroson Tosa; Mukoyama; Oiwake; Tokei-ji; Nagasaki; Tokyo; Nikko; Yoshino; Yokohama; Nagano); Shikoku; Kyushu (Kagoshima; Unzen); Tsushima; Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa; Ishigakishima; Iriomoteshima).

Russia: Tuva ASSR (Naryn River, 1500m); Buryatia (Ulan-Ude); Transbaikalia (Butyvken; Nizhnii Tsasuchei); Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk); Khabarovskiy Kray (Pivan); Primorskiy Kray (18km SE Ussuriysk; Primorskiy; Khasan; Andreevka; Gayvoron; Narva; Pogranichniy).

The Tuvinian individual, captured on 6.vii.1996 at 50°08'N 96°00'E (Danner, Eitschberger & Surholt, 1998), may indicate that this species is spreading westwards in response to global warming.


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Southern Siberia, Mongolia, the southern Russian Far East, northeastern and central-eastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan.


Global distribution of Hemaris radians. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Polycentric -- Japanese and Sinopacific refugia.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)