EUPANACRA SINUATA (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) -- Sinuous rippled hawkmoth

Female Eupanacra sinuata. Photo: © NHMUK Male Eupanacra sinuata. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Panacra sinuata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 539. Type locality: [India,] Sikkim.

Synonym. Panacra sinuata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 58--68mm. Forewing and hindwing outer margins slightly scalloped. Forewing sinuate posterior to apex. Forewing upperside with five postmedian lines, first and second postmedian lines fused into a band ending at a spot on the costa, third, fourth and fifth postmedian lines narrow but well-marked, nearly straight as far as Rs4 before becoming faint and curving to the costa; fringe prominently dotted with blackish brown. Forewing underside with basal two-thirds drab brown; first postmedian line broad, ending at a small patch on the costa; a large brown submarginal patch extends proximad along M2 to the first postmedian line; a conspicuous blackish brown spot near tornus posterior to Cu2. Hindwing upperside with pale median band narrow, often just a line that does not reach costad of M3, not broader than the brown marginal band. Hindwing underside mostly drab brown; costal margin, inner margin and narrow submarginal band ochre speckled with brown; three distinct, somewhat dentate postmedian lines present, the first the heaviest. Middle of thorax upperside and proximal abdominal tergites of similar pale colour to Eupanacra variolosa, a blackish brown stripe underneath the tegula continuing onto abdomen.

In the male genitalia, uncus and gnathos similar to those of Eupanacra automedon. Valve strongly convex dorsally in distal half, with 4 or 5 large, asymmetrical, obliquely rounded-truncate stridulatory scales. Harpe ending in a stout process that is spatulate in dorsal view. Aedeagus with right lobe of apical process similar to Eupanacra automedon but narrower and less truncate; left lobe also broad, much more proximal, apex obliquely rounded, heavily dentate.


Adult Eupanacra sinuata, Thailand. Photo: © Ian Kitching

ADULT BIOLOGY

Unknown.


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 14-27.vi (Yunnan).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Unknown.

LARVA: Unknown.

PUPA: Unknown.

Larval hostplants. Unknown.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Yunnan (nr. Yingjiang, Tongbinguan, 1180m; Pingbian Co., Dawei Shan Nature Reserve, 2000m).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Nepal, northeastern India, southwestern China, northern Thailand, Vietnam.


Global distribution of Eupanacra sinuata. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)