EUPANACRA MALAYANA (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) -- Malayan rippled hawkmoth

Female Eupanacra malayana. Photo: © NHMUK Male Eupanacra malayana. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Panacra malayana Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 535 (key); 537. Type locality: [Indonesia,] south Java [Jawa], 1500ft.

Synonym. Panacra malayana Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.

Synonym. Panacra moseri Gehlen, 1930.

Synonym. Panacra albicans Dupont, 1941.

Synonym. Panacra malayana unilunata (Dupont, 1941).


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Forewing upperside with a white angular mark present between Rs3 and Rs4 contiguous with a brown spot that does not extend beyond Rs4; a faint white angular mark present between Rs4 and M1, slightly proximal to the more apical, both these white marks more prominent in the female. Underside of both wings with distal border generally greyish in the male, dark brown in the female. Forewing underside generally brown (more so in the female) from base to postmedian area, apart from costal edge; postmedian line of vein dots distinct in the male, obscure in the female, parallel to outer margin, but not angular, crossing Rs4 close to its base. Very similar to Eupanacra automedon but easily distinguishable by the forewing outer margin having a blunt double point at the apexes of M1 and M2 and generally a darker brown longitudinal shadow present between M1 and M3. Forewing deeply sinuate between apex and M2, strongly angled at M2, not denticulate.

In the male genitalia, uncus quite broad, flat, slightly convex dorsally, apex truncate, faintly sinuate. Gnathos rounded apically. Valve with 4 large stridulatory scales. Harpe a long, very slender, weakly spatulate process. Aedeagus apical process with left lobe long, free, apically denticulate and on its proximal edge; right lobe short, broad, broadest apically, each angle produced into a tooth that curves towards the other; one or two further teeth between these.


ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA:

PUPA:

Larval hostplants. Curculigo (Hypoxidaceae).


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Hainan (Jianfeng Ling).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Thailand, southern China (Hainan), Vietnam, Malaysia (Peninsular, Sarawak, Sabah), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sumbawa), the Philippines (Palawan).


Global distribution of Eupanacra malayana. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)