DEILEPHILA ASKOLDENSIS (Oberthür, 1879)

Female Deilephila askoldensis. Photo: © NHMUK Male Deilephila askoldensis. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Smerinthus askoldensis Oberthür, 1879, Diagn. Lépid. Askold: 5. Type locality: [Russia, Primorskiy Kray,] Askold I[sland].

Synonym. Smerinthus askoldensis Oberthür, 1879.

Synonym. Cinogon cingulatum Butler, 1881.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 51-59mm. Most similar to brown forms of Deilephila porcellus but outer margins of forewings more strongly dentate. Hindwing upperside with fringe dotted with brown on the veins. Head with a distinct pale lateral stripe, distinct on head and tegulae. with both outer and inner edges highlighted with pale scaling. Abdomen upperside with entire white fringes around the posterior margins of each tergite.


Adult of Deilephila askoldensis, Kravtsovka, Khasan District, Primorskiy Kray, Russian Far East, 1.07.2014. Photo: © Evgenij Komarov.

ADULT BIOLOGY

In the Russian Far East, a species of mixed and deciduous forests characterized by Quercus mongoliana (Izerskiy, 1999b). Females are active between 23.00h and 01.40h, males between 00.20h and 02.40h (Izerskiy, 1999b).


FLIGHT-TIME

China: v (Hebei); vi (Nei Mongol); 16-25.vi (Jilin); vii (Heilongjiang; Beijing). Japan: 4.v (Kyushu); 6-24.vi (Hokkaido; Kyushu); 2.vii-11.viii (Hokkaido; Honshu). Russia: 3.vi-11.viii (Khabarovskiy Kray); 1.vi-29.viii (Primorskiy Kray).

In northern China there can be up to two generations per year, with adults flying between May and August (Yang, 1978); however, in many years there is only a single generation flying in June/July.

Park et al. (1999) give mid May until late September as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA: Documented in detail from Japan by Nozaki & Miyata (1990). In all stages similar to the larva of Deilephila elpenor; however, the earlier instars more similar to those of Hippotion celerio, and basically green. In the final instar the basic brown body colour broken up by pale transverse bands at the juncture of each segment. The small eye-spots on segments four and five continued on each subsequent segment as a dark spot. Horn on segment eleven short, 4mm in length, lower three-quarters dark, upper quarter white.


Full-grown larva of Deilephila askoldensis, Nagano, Japan. Photo: © Takahiro Yano.

PUPA:

Larval hostplants. Vitis amurensis in the Russian Far East (Izerskiy, 1999b; Streltzov, Osipov & Malikova, 2003), but also found on various species of Epilobium and Galium verum (Nozaki & Miyata, 1990) in Japan.


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Nei Mongol (Chen Barag Qi; Hulunbuir Region, Sanhaodian); Heilongjiang (??Ertzendziandzy; Harbin; Zhaodong); Jilin (Jiaohe, Lafa Shan); Liaoning (Changhai, Dachangshan Island); Hebei; Beijing (Baihua Shan).

North Korea: South Hamgyong Prov. (Seokwang Temple); South Pyongan Prov. (Pyongyang); North Hamgyong Prov. (Gyungsung; Charyung).

South Korea: Kyonggi Prov. (Suwon; Suri-san; Gwangleung; Soyo-san; Cheongpyong; Baekun-san; Asan Bay; Ansan; Pyungtaek); Kwangwon Prov. (Seolak-san; Yangyang; Donghae; Chuncheon); North Chungchang Prov. (Chupungryung; Minjuji-san; Songni-san); Kyongsang Prov. (Sobaek-san; Juwang-san); South Kyongsang Prov. (Jinyang); Cheju Prov. (Cheju-do; Halla-san; Seoguipo).

Japan: Hokkaido (Hakodate; Tobetsu; Sapporo); Honshu (Tokei-ji; Hakoni; Kobe; Shinano; Shizugawa; Fujimi Heights; Miyota; Yasakamura; Nagano); Kyushu (Kumamoto; Oita).

Russia: Transbaikalia (Nizhniy Casuchey; Budymkan; Ur'upino); Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk; Zeiskii Nature Reserve; Uril area; Pashkovo); Yevreyskaya (Pompeyevka; Bastak); Khabarovskiy Kray (Slavyanka; Kabarovsk; Bolshekhekhtsyrskii Nature Reserve, Khabarovsk suburbs; Pivan; Botchinskii Nature Reserve); Primorskiy Kray (Andreevka; Primorskiy; Ussuriysk; Narva; Askold Island; Vityaz Bay; Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve; near Kalinovka; near Zanadvorovka; Kravtsovka).

According to V. Dubatolov (pers. comm. 2010), not rare in the east of Transbaikalia.


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Confined to the southern Russian Far East, northeastern China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan as far south as Kyushu (Nozaki & Miyata, 1990).


Global distribution of Deilephila askoldensis. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)