CLANIS UNDULOSA UNDULOSA Moore, 1879 -- Wavy velvet hawkmoth

Female Clanis undulosa undulosa. Photo: © BMNH Male Clanis undulosa undulosa. Photo: © BMNH

TAXONOMY

Clanis undulosa Moore, 1879, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879: 387. Type locality: North China.

Synonym. Clanis undulosa jankowskii Gehlen, 1932.

Note. Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 214, incorrectly stated that the 'type' was a female.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 100--120mm.


Clanis undulosa undulosa, 30 km N Huangling, Shaanxi, China, 24.vii.1995. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

ADULT BIOLOGY

In the Russian Far East, a lowland species of deciduous woodland dominated by Quercus mongolica (Izerskiy, 1999b).


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 14.vii (Beijing); 24.vii (Shaanxi); ix (Shaanxi). North Korea: vi (Pukchong; Mt. Kuwol); vii (Baekdu-san); vii (Jueul); 14-27.vii [(unstated locality)]. South Korea: 20-28.vi (Ulleung-do); 26.vii [(unstated locality)]. Russia: 12.vii-5.viii (Primorskiy Kray); 24.viii (Primorskiy Kray).

Park et al. (1999) give early June until early August as the flight period in Korea.


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Ivory-yellow, slightly oval (2.00 x 2.50mm), shiny and smooth (Bell & Scott, 1937).

LARVA: Full-fed 80--90mm.


Full-grown pink form larva of Clanis undulosa undulosa. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown green form larva of Clanis undulosa undulosa. Image: Mell, 1922b

PUPA: 50mm.

Larval hostplants. Unknown for the nominotypical subspecies. However, Clanis undulosa gigantea was recorded on Lespedeza in Guangdong (Mell, 1922b) and northeastern India (Bell & Scott, 1937). Monophagous in Guangdong on L. viatorum (Mell, 1922b) (which Mell, 1935, erroneously listed as L. formosa), which is also the favoured larval hostplant in the Yangtze Valley (Yang, 1978). The record on Ligustrum (Mathur & Balwant Singh, 1960) is almost certainly an error for the North American species Ceratomia undulosa (Walker).


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Liaoning (Changhai, Dachangshan Island); Hebei; Beijing (Baihua Shan); Shaanxi (30km north of Huangling; Xunyang, 1380m).

Taiwan.

North Korea South Hwanghae Prov. (Mt. Kuwol, 950m); North Hamgyong Prov. (Jueul, 1500m; Cheongjin; Baekdu-san, 2500m; Chongjin); South Hamgyong Prov. (Pulgaemi ridge above Pukchong City, 1500m).

South Korea: Kyonggi Prov. (Gwangleung; Cheongpyong; Soyo-san; Myungji-san); Kangwon Prov. (Seolak-san; Odae-san; Hoengsung; Chiak-san; Baekduk-san; Taebek-san; Chuncheon); North Chungchong Prov. (Jecheon); South Chungchong Prov. (Gyeryong-san; Chilgab-san); North Cholla (Jiri-san; Namwon); South Cholla Prov. (Jogye-san; Gwangyang; Gurye); North Kyongsang Prov. (Daegu; Gunwi; Naeyon-san; Juwang-san; Cheongyang-san; Youngcheon; Ulleung-do); South Kyongsang Prov. (Hamyang; Jinyang; Yeohang-san; Muhak-san; Jinju; Geoje-do; Namhae; Goseong; Sacheon; Sancheong; Ulsan; Hadong; Hapcheon).

Russia: Primorskiy Kray (Andreevka; Yakovlevka; Vityaz Bay; Khasan; Primorskiy; Gamov Peninsula).

This species was first collected in the Russian Far East in 1975 by Velezhanin, on Furugelma Island near the border with North Korea. In 1979, V. Dubatolov found it at Vityaz Bay by the Gamov Peninsula, where it is now common. It has since spread farther north, to Yakovlevka, north of Andreevka, where it was collected by P. Ustyuzhanin (Dubatolov, pers. comm. 2010).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

The nominotypical subspecies occurs in the southern Russian Far East, the Korean Peninsula and northeastern China, as far as south and west as Shaanxi and Hebei. South from Sichuan (Baoxing), Hubei, Jiangxi (Guling) and Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan), it is replaced by Clanis undulosa gigantea (Rothschild), which ranges west to Nepal and south, through Thailand and Vietnam, to Peninsular Malaysia.


Global distribution of Clanis undulosa undulosa. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Sinopacific refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)