CALLAMBULYX SICHANGENSIS Chu & Wang, 1980

Adult Callambulyx sichangensis, Lushan, Sichuan, China. HOLOTYPE of Callambulyx tatarinovi sichangensis, IZAS. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

TAXONOMY

Callambulyx tatarinovi [sic] sichangensis Chu & Wang, 1980, Acta zootaxon. sin. 5: 418. Type locality: China, Sichuan, Xichang, Lushan.

Note. Although not the spelling appearing at the head of the descriptive text, sichangensis is clearly the name intended by Chu & Wang as it is the spelling used subsequently by them in both Econ. Ins. Fauna China 22: 45 (1980), and Iconographia Heterocera Sinicorum 4: 396. Hence Kitching considers Inoue's use of sichangenata as incorrect.

Note. This taxon has been treated either as a subspecies of Callambulyx tatarinovii (e.g. Zhu & Wang, 1997) or as a synonym of C. poecilus/diehli (e.g. Inoue, 1990). However, after examination of the holotype, and two specimens in the collection of J.-M. Cadiou from Dianchang Shan, Yunnan, we concluded that C. sichangensis is a species separate from both C. poecilus/diehli and C. tatarinovii. The most characteristic feature of C. sichangensis is the dark-green 'V'-shaped mark on the forewing, contrasting strongly with the paler green areas surrounding it. This pattern element is present in both C. poecilus/diehli and C. tatarinovii but is not so conspicuous. The distal margin of this mark is smoothly concave in C. sichangensis, whereas it is irregular or serrate in the other two species. There is also a long white line extending basad from the apex of the forewing in C. sichangensis that is visible on both wing surfaces, similar to that seen in C. sinjaevi Brechlin, but is not as strongly developed. This line is very poorly developed or absent in C. poecilus/diehli and C. tatarinovii. C. sichangensis also differs in wing shape and the pattern of lines on the hindwing underside. There are also diagnostic features of the male genitalia of C. sichangensis. The uncus of C. poecilus/diehli is laterally compressed and produced apically into a broad, triangular, blunt point, whereas the uncus of C. tatarinovii is slender, tubular and has a rounded apex. In contrast, the uncus of C. sichangensis is flared apically into two flanges, between which is a deep notch (see Zhu & Wang, 1997: fig. 203). The shape of the valve and harpe are generally similar in C. sichangensis and C. poecilus/diehli. Both species have a blunt lobe on the inner surface of the valve, which is absent in C. tatarinovii. However, in C. poecilus/diehli this lobe is in the middle of the valve, whereas in C. sichangensis, it is on the ventral edge of the valve, behind the harpe. From the base of this lobe in C. poecilus/diehli there extends a narrow, sclerotized ridge bearing a few peg-like setae. In C. sichangensis, this ridge is expanded ventrally into a triangular bulge with numerous peg-like setae. There are also other differences, such as the shapes of the juxta and valve apex, and the length of the saccus. The aedeagus of C. poecilus/diehli is longer than that of C. sichangensis, and the diverticula of the vesica are bluntly triangular in shape in the former, whereas those of the latter are broadly rounded. Finally, C. poecilus/diehli and C. sichangensis co-occur, at least on Diancang Shan in Yunnan.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Resting Callambulyx sichangensis, Jiucai Ling, Guizhou, China. Photo: © Viktor Sinjaev.

ADULT BIOLOGY

Unknown.


FLIGHT-TIME

China: iv (Guizhou); vii (Diancang Shan, near Dali); 4.viii (Lushan).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Unknown.

LARVA: Unknown.

PUPA: Unknown.

Larval hostplants. Unknown.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Sichuan (Lushan); Yunnan (Diancang Shan, near Dali); Guizhou (Jiucai Ling).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Endemic to China.


Global distribution of Callambulyx sichangensis. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Yunnan refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)