CALLAMBULYX JUNONIA (Butler, 1881) -- Eyed pink-and-green hawkmoth

Female Callambulyx junonia, Sa Pa, Vietnam. Photo: © Ronald Brechlin Male Callambulyx junonia. Photo: © BMNH Male Callambulyx junonia, Hefeng, Hubei, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway, IZAS.

TAXONOMY

Ambulyx junonia Butler, 1881, Illustr. typ. Spec. Lepid. Heterocera Brit. Mus. 5: 9. Type locality: Bhotan [Bhutan].

Synonym. Ambulyx junonia Butler, 1881.

Synonym. Callambulyx junonia angusta Clark, 1935.

Synonym. Callambulyx junonia chinensis Clark, 1938, Proc. New Engl. zool. Club 17: 42. Type locality: China (SW), Szechuan Province [Sichuan], Mt Omei [Emei Shan], 9000'.

Synonym. Callambulyx orbita Chu & Wang, 1980, Acta zootaxon. sin. 5: 419. Type locality: China, Yunnan, Lijiang, 3900m.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 104mm. Differs from Callambulyx rubricosa rubricosa in having no white shaft to, or band between, the antennae. Forewing with the ante- and postmedian lines obsolete; the whole inner area purplish-grey; a large purplish-grey patch on outer margin, the outline between it and the green at apex irregular. Hindwing with a green line traversing the crimson beyond the cell; a large dark eyespot centred with grey below lower angle of cell; outer and inner areas brown. Underside greenish-yellow, some crimson on disc of forewing; the markings brown. The forewings of freshly emerged individuals are flushed with various shades of jade green. Unfortunately, these tend to fade to yellowish-brown or even grey in older/dried specimens.

In the male genitalia, uncus in form of an inverted fish tail with apex excavated so forming a forked structure, sides concave and base about as broad as apex. Valva narrow apically; harpe with a pointed hook distally and several teeth more proximally.

Callambulyx junonia can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by the presence of a complete eyespot on the hindwing upperside.


Male Callambulyx junonia, Taibai Shan, Shaanxi, China. Photo: © Viktor Sinjaev. Male Callambulyx junonia, Bomphu (1800m), Eaglenest, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 22.iv.2012. Photo: © Purnendu.

ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 26.iv (Tengchong); 30.iv-1.v (Lushui); 10.vi (Emei Shan); 16-21.vi (Taibai Shan); 28.vi (Lijiang); 29.vii (Hefeng).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM: Unknown.

LARVA: Unknown.

PUPA: Unknown.

Larval hostplants. Unknown.


PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Shaanxi (Taibai Shan, 1500m); Hubei (Hefeng, 1240m); Sichuan (Emei Shan, 2700m; 70km W Chengdu); Yunnan (Lijiang, 3900m; Lushui, 2240m; Tengchong, 1750m); Hunan (Xiangxi Prefecture); Hainan.

Confirmed from only a small number of highly disjunct localities, generally at high altitude.


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Bhutan, northeastern India (Nagaland; Arunachal Pradesh), southern China and northern Vietnam (Sa Pa mountains, 2400m).


Global distribution of Callambulyx junonia. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Yunnan refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)