CECHENENA HELOPS HELOPS (Walker, 1856) -- Spotted green hawkmoth

Female Cechenena helops helops. Photo: © NHMUK Male Cechenena helops helops. Photo: © NHMUK

TAXONOMY

Philampelus helops Walker, 1856, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 8: 180. Type locality: "Port Natal" <<[Malaysia,] Penang [Pinang]>>.

Synonym. Philampelus helops Walker, 1856.

Synonym. Philampelus orientalis R. Felder, 1874.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 104--126mm. An unmistakable grey-green species with a characteristic large oval olive-brown spot at the base of the forewing upperside. Forewing upperside with a large, oval, basal brown patch; discal spot with an additional black spot just anterior to it; apex with a broken black line distally bordering an olive-brown costal patch that ends abruptly at vein M1. Forewing underside similar to Rhagastis velata; postmedian costal spot smaller than in Cechenena helops papuana. Hindwing upperside pale tornal patch larger than in Cechenena helops papuana. Hindwing underside with dots on veins more distal than in Cechenena helops papuana. Labial palp segment 1 with a sharply defined apical cavity. Forewing outer margin very weakly scalloped; apex less acute and produced than in Cechenena helops papuana. Abdominal segments 1 and 2 with a lateral black patch. Underside of abdomen less white than in Cechenena helops papuana.

In the male genitalia, uncus apically flat, truncate, slightly sinuate. Gnathos compressed, outline of ventral surface strongly curved in lateral view. Harpe almost cylindrical, 3-4x as long as medially broad, much longer than in Cechenena helops papuana, apex obtuse, rounded. Aedeagus apical processes much shorter than in Cechenena aegrota, but longer than in Cechenena helops papuana. In the female genitalia, lateral margins of sterigma quite sharply raised. Ostium bursae large, edges weakly raised in a lyre-shape.


Adult Cechenena helops helops, Thailand. Photo: © Ian Kitching Adult Cechenena helops helops at rest, Singapore. Photo: © Leong Tzi Ming Adult Cechenena helops helops at rest, Bukit Fraser, Malaysia. Photo: © CheongWeei Gan.

ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME

China: vi (Guizhou; Hainan)


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA:


Full-grown larva of Cechenena helops helops, Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia, 10.iv.2009. Photo: © George Beccaloni. Eye-spots of full-grown larva of Cechenena helops helops, Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia, 10.iv.2009. Photo: © George Beccaloni. Full-grown larva of Cechenena helops helops (pale form), Sulawesi, Indonesia. Photo: © Mahmud/Gary Saunders. Pre-pupal Cechenena helops helops larva, Singapore. Photo: © Leong Tzi Ming

PUPA:


Pupa of Cechenena helops helops (lateral view), Singapore. Photo: © Leong Tzi Ming Pupa of Cechenena helops helops (ventral view), Singapore. Photo: © Leong Tzi Ming

Larval hostplants. Tetrastigma (Vitaceae).


PARASITOIDS


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Yunnan (Cangyuan; Gaoligong Shan); Guizhou (Fanjingshan, Tongren County); Hainan (Longhushan, Wenchang City).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Nepal, northeast India, Thailand, southwestern China, Vietnam, Malaysia (Peninsular, Sarawak, Sabah), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi), the Philippines (Palawan, Balabac).


Global distribution of Cechenena helops helops. Map: © NHMUK.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)