CYPOIDES CHINENSIS (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Female Cypoides chinensis. Photo: © BMNH Male Cypoides chinensis. Photo: © BMNH Male Cypoides chinensis. Photo: © BMNH

TAXONOMY

Smerinthulus chinensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903, Novit. zool. 9 (suppl.): 299 (key), 301. Type locality: China, [Fujian, Qingliu County,] Léou-Pang <<Léou Fang>> [Liufang].

Synonym. Smerinthulus chinensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903.

Synonym. Cypa formosana Wileman, 1910.

Synonym. Amorphulus chinensis fasciata Mell, 1922.

Synonym. Enpinanga transtriata Chu & Wang, 1980, Acta zootaxon. sin. 5: 420. Type locality: China, Fujian, Chong'an, 740m.

Note. Chu & Wang (1980) misidentified Cypoides chinensis (Rothschild & Jordan) as L. a. sinica. Other Chinese authors have perpetuated this error.


ADULT DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION

Wingspan: 38--43mm. In general appearance similar to Cypa decolor but forewing broader and hindwing upperside a rusty red and brighter in colour. Very like a small, pale L. populi.

In the male genitalia, uncus similar to that of Cypa decolor but narrowing more gradually. Gnathos with a sharply pointed, narrow medial process. Valva sole-shaped, narrow. Harpe dilated and very strongly sclerotised proximally, with a single distal process. Aedeagus curved, with the opening covered by a kind of operculum.


Female Cypoides chinensis, Taiwan. Photo: © Felix Lin. Male Cypoides chinensis, Jiucai Ling, Guizhou, China. Photo: © Viktor Sinjaev.

ADULT BIOLOGY


FLIGHT-TIME

China: 9.i (Guangdong); 25-27.i (Hong Kong); iii (Hunan); 9.iii (Guangdong); iv (Guizhou); 27.iii-27.iv (Zhejiang); 14.v (Fujian, 740m); vi (Hainan); 8.vi (Anhui), 27.vi (Fujian); 12.vii (Hubei); 20.viii (Zhejiang); 22.viii (Guangdong); viii-ix (Hunan); 7.ix-x (Hong Kong). Taiwan: iii (Nantou Hsien); iv (Hualien Hsien); vi (Nantou Hsien); viii (Nantou Hsien; Taoyuan Hsien); x (Nantou Hsien).

This species is generally single brooded in Hong Kong, flying from January until March, with a peak in February (Roger Kendrick, pers. comm.). The summer appears to be spent as a diapausing pupa, which emerges with the onset of cooler winter weather; however, it appears that in some (?cooler) years some adults will appear on the wing again in September and October. Farther north the species is double brooded.

In Thailand this species flies in July and August during the wet season (Inoue et al., [1996]).


EARLY STAGES

OVUM:

LARVA: 45mm.


Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis, Hong Kong, China. Photo: © Roger Kendrick. Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Full-grown larva of Cypoides chinensis (dorsal view), Taiwan. Photo: © Felix Lin.

PUPA:


Pupa of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b Pupa of Cypoides chinensis. Image: Mell, 1922b

Larval hostplants. Recorded from Guangdong on Liquidambar formosana (Mell, 1922b); the same tree is also utilized in Hong Kong (Roger Kendrick, pers. comm.). Wang (1992) also list Broussonetia papyrifera and Quercus as hostplants for China.


Liquidambar formosana, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Photo: © Tony Pittaway.

PARASITOIDS

Unknown.


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

China: Anhui (Huang Shan); Zhejiang (Hangzhou); Hubei (Shennongjia); Guizhou (Jiucai Ling); Hunan (Dayong); Jiangxi (Pingxiang; Wanzai); Fujian (Chong'an, 740m; Liufang); Guangdong (Guangzhou; Lienping); Hong Kong; Hainan (Youboi).

Taiwan: Hualien Hsien (Taroko National Park); Nantou Hsien (Lushan spa; Fushih spa; Jenai; Kuantauchi); Taiko; Taoyuan Hsien (Paleng); Taipei (Jingshan); Taipei Hsien (Fushan); Ilan Hsien (Tianone, 1200m).


GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Occurs primarily in southern China and Taiwan, but extending south to mountainous northern Vietnam and northeastern Thailand (Inoue et al., [1996]).


Global distribution of Cypoides chinensis. Map: © BMNH.

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL AFFILIATION

Holarctic; eastern Palaearctic region. Pleistocene refuge: Monocentric -- Yunnan refugium.



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© A.R. Pittaway & I.J. Kitching (The Natural History Museum, London)